Table 1: An overview of miRNAs in the major chronic non-neoplastic childhood diseases.

DiseasemiRNAsMechanismReference

Bronchial asthma
(1) RiskMiR-148a, miR-148b, and miR-152Interacting with HLA-G[9]
pre-miRNAsrs2910164G/C and rs2292832C/T SNP[10]
MiR-155Decreased expression increase asthma severity[11]
(2) PathogenesisMiR-146b, miR-223, miR-29b, miR-29c, miR-483, miR-574, miR-5p, miR-672, and miR-690Abnormally expressed in asthma models[1219]
MiR-221Regulate mast cell functions[20, 21]
MiR-21Polarize Th cells toward Th2[12]
MiR-126Its blockage diminished Th2 responses[13]
MiR-146aContribute in remodeling[25]
let-7 mimicReduced IL-13 levels[26]
MiR-145Pro-inflammatory effect[27]
(3) Therapeutic targetsMiR-133aModulate RhoA/Rhokinase pathway[17]
MiR-126Suppress Th2-driven airway inflammation[13]
MiR-106aInhibit IL-10[35]
MiR-146aMediate anti-inflammatory effect of dexamethasone[36]
Anti-miR-145Reduce severity of airway inflammation[37]

Diabetes mellitus
(1) Physiological aspects
 (a) Pancreas developmentMiR-124a2Pancreatic β-cell development[41]
MiR-375Formation of pancreatic islets [42]
MiR-375Maintenance pancreatic endocrine mass viability[43]
 (b) Insulin biosynthesisMiR-15aTargeting UCP-2[44]
MiR-30dActivates MafA expression[45]
MiR-375, miR-122, miR-127-3p, and miR-184Insulin biosynthesis[46]
MiR-133aSuppress insulin biosynthesis[47]
 (c) Insulin secretionMiR-9Secretory function of insulin producing cells[48, 49]
MiR-375Regulate insulin secretion[50]
MiR-124a and miR-29Optimal insulin secretion[41, 52]
MiR-33aInversely correlates with ABCA1 expression[89]
MiR-21, miR-34a, and miR-146Inhibit insulin secretion[54]
  (d) Insulin actionsMiR-103/107Insulin sensitivity[55]
Lin28/let-7Regulation of glucose metabolism[56]
(2) Type 1 diabetesMiR-29 familyCytokine-mediated β-cell dysfunction[59]
MiRs (124, 128, 192, 194, 204, 375, 672, and 708)Deregulated in T1D model[61]
(3) Type 2 diabetesMiR-143Inhibit insulin-stimulated AKT activation[68]
miR-146a impairmentMediate insulin resistance[69]
MiR-125aIncreased expression in T2D [70]
MiR-126Deregulated in plasma of T2D patients[77]
(4) ComplicationsMiRs (144, 146a, 150, 182, 192, 30d, and 320)Biomarkers for diabetes progression[76]
MiR-192Increased in glomeruli of diabetic mice[78]
MiR-200b/c, miR-216a, and miR-217Detected in glomeruli of diabetic mice[7981]
MiR-377Play a role in DN renal fibrosis[82]
MiR-192Reduced renal fibrosis and improves proteinuria[89]
MiR-126, miR-27b, and miR-130aProangiogenic miRNAs[89]
MiR-98Modulate TRB2 [90]
MiR-503Caused diabetic impaired angiogenesis[91]
(5) Therapeutic targetsMiR-126Related to impaired (EPC)[92]
MiR-186, miR-199a, and miR-339Stem cell therapy of TID[93]
MiR-21-PDCD4 pathwayTreating autoimmune T1D[94]
MiR-375Facilitate insulin response[42]
MiR-181aImproves hepatic insulin sensitivity[96]

Epilepsy
(1) PathogenesisMiR-213, miR-132, miR-30c, miR-26a, and miR-375Prominently upregulated in MTLE acute stage[102]
MiR-29a and miR-181cProminently downregulated in MTLE acute stage[102]
MiR-21Regulate neurotrophin-3 signaling[103]
MiR-let-7e and miR-23 a/bDeregulated in the MTLE chronic stage[103]
MiR-146aDifferently expressed in different stages of MTLE development and may interact with IL-1β[107]
MiR-155Differently expressed in different stages of MTLE development and may interact with TNF-α[108]
MiR-132Related to synaptic plasticity[115]
(2) Potential blood biomarkerMiR-34a, miR-22, miR-125a, and miR-21Showed different expression in the blood[102]
(3) Therapeutic targetAnti-miR-132Reduced seizure-induced neuronal death[117]
MiR-134 silencingNeuroprotective effect[118]

Cystic fibrosis
MiR-155Activation of IL-8-dependent inflammation[126]
MiR-138Regulates CFTR expression[129]
MiR-145, -223, and -494Correlates with decreased CFTR expression[130]
MiR-101 and miR-494Act synergistically on CFTR-reporter inhibition[131]
MiR-146Significantly changed in the sputum of CF patients[132]