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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 296019, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/296019
Research Article

Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Osteogenesis of Human Alveolar Bone-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

1Department of Biosystems & Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921, Republic of Korea
2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744, Republic of Korea
3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tooth Bioengineering National Research Lab, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744, Republic of Korea
4Tooth Bioengineering National Research Laboratory of Post BK21, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744, Republic of Korea
5Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921, Republic of Korea

Received 3 April 2013; Accepted 1 May 2013

Academic Editor: Mouldy Sioud

Copyright © 2013 KiTaek Lim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This study was performed to investigate the effects of extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (ELF-PEMFs) on the proliferation and differentiation of human alveolar bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hABMSCs). Osteogenesis is a complex series of events involving the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to generate new bone. In this study, we examined not merely the effect of ELF-PEMFs on cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and mineralization of the extracellular matrix but vinculin, vimentin, and calmodulin (CaM) expressions in hABMSCs during osteogenic differentiation. Exposure of hABMSCs to ELF-PEMFs increased proliferation by 15% compared to untreated cells at day 5. In addition, exposure to ELF-PEMFs significantly increased ALP expression during the early stages of osteogenesis and substantially enhanced mineralization near the midpoint of osteogenesis within 2 weeks. ELF-PEMFs also increased vinculin, vimentin, and CaM expressions, compared to control. In particular, CaM indicated that ELF-PEMFs significantly altered the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. The results indicated that ELF-PEMFs could enhance early cell proliferation in hABMSCs-mediated osteogenesis and accelerate the osteogenesis.