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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 309723, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/309723
Review Article

Diagnostic Procedures and Management of Dry Eye

1Department of Ophthalmology, Clinical Hospital Dubrava, Avenija Gojka Šuška 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2Department of Ophthalmology, University Clinic Vuk Vrhovac, Clinical Hospital Merkur, Zajčeva ulica 19, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

Received 30 April 2013; Accepted 19 July 2013

Academic Editor: Fernando M. Penha

Copyright © 2013 Snježana Kaštelan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Dry eye disease or dysfunctional tear syndrome is among the most frequent diagnoses in ophthalmology. It is a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface and tear film which results in ocular discomfort, visual disturbances, and tear instability with potential damage to the cornea and conjunctiva. Risk factors for dry eye syndrome include age, sex (female gender), race, contact lens wear, environment with low humidity, systemic medications, and autoimmune disorders. The aim of this paper is to present the systematic classification, epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, and advances in the management of dry eye disease. The recent improvements in comprehending the underlying etiologic factors will inevitably improve future classifications and diagnostic abilities leading to more effective therapeutic options. Treatment of this highly prevalent condition can drastically improve the quality of life of individuals and prevent damage to the ocular surface.