309769.fig.004a
(a)
309769.fig.004b
(b)
309769.fig.004c
(c)
309769.fig.004d
(d)
309769.fig.004e
(e)
309769.fig.004f
(f)
Figure 4: Transmission electron microscopy micrographs of D. alaskensis cells. In untreated cells, the inner and outer membranes are visible as continuous and intact structures (a). After treatment with a sub-MIC of AMSs, spherical double-layered structures inside and outside the cell can be observed ((b), black arrow), and the periplasmic space filled with electron-dense material. MIC of AMSs causes the formation of numerous spherical double-layered structures ((c)-(d), black arrows) and the periplasmic space to be filled with electron-dense material. After treatment with a supra-MIC of AMSs, the periplasmic space is still filled with electron-dense material and prominent bubbles are emerging from the cell surface ((e)-(f), black arrows).