- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 316495, 6 pages
Is There a Causal Link between Inflammation and Dementia?
1Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 8 Eroilor Sanitari, District 5, Bucharest 050474, Romania
2Department of Neurology, Colentina Clinical Hospital (CDPC), School of Medicine, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 19-21 Soseaua Stefan cel Mare, District 2, Bucharest 020125, Romania
3Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, “Victor Babeş” National Institute of Pathology, 99-101 Splaiul Independenţei, District 5, Bucharest 050096, Romania
Received 31 March 2013; Accepted 20 May 2013
Academic Editor: Thomas Van Groen
Copyright © 2013 Ana-Maria Enciu and Bogdan O. Popescu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- T. Wyss-Coray and J. Rogers, “Inflammation in Alzheimer disease-a brief review of the basic science and clinical literature,” Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, vol. 2, Article ID a006346, 2012.
- M. Schultzberg, C. Lindberg, Å. F. Aronsson, E. Hjorth, S. D. Spulber, and M. Oprica, “Inflammation in the nervous system—physiological and pathophysiological aspects,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 92, no. 1-2, pp. 121–128, 2007.
- J. J. Hoozemans, R. Veerhuis, J. M. Rozemuller, and P. Eikelenboom, “Soothing the inflamed brain: effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on Alzheimer's disease pathology,” CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 57–67, 2011.
- C. A. Colton, “Heterogeneity of microglial activation in the innate immune response in the brain,” Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 399–418, 2009.
- J. Apelt and R. Schliebs, “β-amyloid-induced glial expression of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in cerebral cortex of aged transgenic Tg2576 mice with Alzheimer plaque pathology,” Brain Research, vol. 894, no. 1, pp. 21–30, 2001.
- Y. Matsuoka, M. Picciano, B. Maleste et al., “Inflammatory responses to amyloidosis in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 158, no. 4, pp. 1345–1354, 2001.
- M. R. D'Andrea, P. A. Reiser, N. A. Gumula, B. M. Hertzog, and P. Andrade-Gordon, “Application of triple immunohistochemistry to characterize amyloid plaque-associated inflammation in brains with Alzheimer's disease,” Biotechnic and Histochemistry, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 97–106, 2001.
- I. Tooyama, H. Kimura, H. Akiyama, and P. L. McGeer, “Reactive microglia express class I and class II major histocompatibility complex antigens in Alzheimer's disease,” Brain Research, vol. 523, no. 2, pp. 273–280, 1990.
- L. S. Perlmutter, S. A. Scott, E. Barron, and H. C. Chui, “MHC class II-positive microglia in human brain: association with Alzheimer lesions,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 549–558, 1992.
- T. Uchihara, H. Akiyama, H. Kondo, and K. Ikeda, “Activated microglial cells are colocalized with perivascular deposits of amyloid-β protein in Alzheimer's disease brain',” Stroke, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 1948–1950, 1997.
- M. T. Heneka, M. Sastre, L. Dumitrescu-Ozimek et al., “Focal glial activation coincides with increased BACE1 activation and precedes amyloid plaque deposition in APP[V717I] transgenic mice,” Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol. 2, article 22, 2005.
- V. Vukic, D. Callaghan, D. Walker et al., “Expression of inflammatory genes induced by beta-amyloid peptides in human brain endothelial cells and in Alzheimer's brain is mediated by the JNK-AP1 signaling pathway,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 95–106, 2009.
- A. K. Vehmas, C. H. Kawas, W. F. Stewart, and J. C. Troncoso, “Immune reactive cells in senile plaques and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 321–331, 2003.
- C. A. Colton, R. T. Mott, H. Sharpe, Q. Xu, W. E. van Nostrand, and M. P. Vitek, “Expression profiles for macrophage alternative activation genes in AD and in mouse models of AD,” Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol. 3, article 27, 2006.
- M. Kitazawa, D. Cheng, M. R. Tsukamoto et al., “Blocking IL-1 signaling rescues cognition, attenuates Tau pathology, and restores neuronal -βcatenin pathway function in an Alzheimer's disease model,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 187, no. 12, pp. 6539–6549, 2011.
- M. Oprica, E. Hjorth, S. Spulber et al., “Studies on brain volume, Alzheimer-related proteins and cytokines in mice with chronic overexpression of IL-1 receptor antagonist,” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 810–825, 2007.
- E. G. Reed-Geaghan, Q. W. Reed, P. E. Cramer, and G. E. Landreth, “Deletion of CD14 attenuates Alzheimer's disease pathology by influencing the brain's inflammatory milieu,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 30, no. 46, pp. 15369–15373, 2010.
- P. He, Z. Zhong, K. Lindholm et al., “Deletion of tumor necrosis factor death receptor inhibits amyloid β generation and prevents learning and memory deficits in Alzheimer's mice,” Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 178, no. 5, pp. 829–841, 2007.
- T. Kiyota, S. Okuyama, R. J. Swan, M. T. Jacobsen, H. E. Gendelman, and T. Ikezu, “CNS expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-4 attenuates Alzheimer's disease-like pathogenesis in APP+PS1 bigenic mice,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 3093–3102, 2010.
- E. Shimizu, K. Kawahara, M. Kajizono, M. Sawada, and H. Nakayama, “IL-4-induced selective clearance of oligomeric β-amyloid peptide 1–42 by rat primary type 2 microglia,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 181, no. 9, pp. 6503–6513, 2008.
- A. Lugaresi, A. Di Iorio, C. Iarlori et al., “IL-4 in vitro production is upregulated in Alzheimer's disease patients treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors,” Experimental Gerontology, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 653–657, 2004.
- T. Mizuno, “The biphasic role of microglia in Alzheimer's disease,” International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 2012, Article ID 737846, 9 pages, 2012.
- R. de Simone, M. A. Ajmone-Cat, P. Tirassa, and L. Minghetti, “Apoptotic PC12 cells exposing phosphatidylserine promote the production of anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective molecules by microglial cells,” Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 208–216, 2003.
- C. Nathan, N. Calingasan, J. Nezezon et al., “Protection from Alzheimer's-like disease in the mouse by genetic ablation of inducible nitric oxide synthase,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 202, no. 9, pp. 1163–1169, 2005.
- M. Yamamoto, T. Kiyota, S. M. Walsh, and T. Ikezu, “Kinetic analysis of aggregated amyloid-β peptide clearance in adult bone-marrow-derived macrophages from APP and CCL2 transgenic mice,” Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 213–221, 2007.
- G. Naert and S. Rivest, “CC chemokine receptor 2 deficiency aggravates cognitive impairments and amyloid pathology in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 31, no. 16, pp. 6208–6220, 2011.
- M. Kuijpers, K. L. I. van Gassen, P. N. E. de Graan, and D. Gruol, “Chronic exposure to the chemokine CCL3 enhances neuronal network activity in rat hippocampal cultures,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 229, no. 1-2, pp. 73–80, 2010.
- C. Jack, F. Ruffini, A. Bar-Or, and J. P. Antel, “Microglia and multiple sclerosis,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 363–373, 2005.
- M. Marta, “Toll-like receptors in multiple sclerosis mouse experimental models,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1173, pp. 458–462, 2009.
- E. Okun, K. J. Griffioen, J. D. Lathia, S. Tang, M. P. Mattson, and T. V. Arumugam, “Toll-like receptors in neurodegeneration,” Brain Research Reviews, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 278–292, 2009.
- S. Amor, F. Puentes, D. Baker, and P. van der Valk, “Inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases,” Immunology, vol. 129, no. 2, pp. 154–169, 2010.
- M. Bsibsi, C. Persoon-Deen, R. W. H. Verwer, S. Meeuwsen, R. Ravid, and J. M. van Noort, “Toll-like receptor 3 on adult human astrocytes triggers production of neuroprotective mediators,” GLIA, vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 688–695, 2006.
- W. Swardfager, K. Lanctt, L. Rothenburg, A. Wong, J. Cappell, and N. Herrmann, “A meta-analysis of cytokines in Alzheimer's disease,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 68, no. 10, pp. 930–941, 2010.
- X. Cheng, L. Yang, P. He, R. Li, and Y. Shen, “Differential activation of tumor necrosis factor receptors distinguishes between brains from Alzheimer's disease and non-demented patients,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 621–630, 2010.
- A. Lanzrein, C. M. Johnston, V. H. Perry, K. A. Jobst, E. M. King, and A. D. Smith, “Longitudinal study of inflammatory factors in serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain tissue in Alzheimer disease: interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, tumor necrosis factor-α, the soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors I and II, and α1-antichymotrypsin,” Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 215–227, 1998.
- B. S. Diniz, A. L. Teixeira, E. B. Ojopi et al., “Higher serum sTNFR1 level predicts conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 1305–1311, 2010.
- H. Jiang, H. Hampel, D. Prvulovic et al., “Elevated CSF levels of TACE activity and soluble TNF receptors in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and patients with Alzheimer's disease,” Molecular Neurodegeneration, vol. 6, no. 1, article 69, 2011.
- P. Buchhave, H. Zetterberg, K. Blennow, L. Minthon, S. Janciauskiene, and O. Hansson, “Soluble TNF receptors are associated with Aβ metabolism and conversion to dementia in subjects with mild cognitive impairment,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 1877–1884, 2010.
- D. Culpan, P. G. Kehoe, and S. Love, “Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and miRNA expression in frontal and temporal neocortex in Alzheimer's disease and the effect of TNF-α on miRNA expression in vitro,” International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 156–162, 2011.
- P. Buchhave, S. Janciauskiene, H. Zetterberg, K. Blennow, L. Minthon, and O. Hansson, “Elevated plasma levels of soluble CD40 in incipient Alzheimer's disease,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 450, no. 1, pp. 56–59, 2009.
- O. V. Forlenza, B. S. Diniz, L. L. Talib et al., “Increased serum IL-1β level in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 507–512, 2009.
- R. Craig-Schapiro, M. Kuhn, C. Xiong et al., “Multiplexed immunoassay panel identifies novel CSF biomarkers for alzheimer's disease diagnosis and prognosis,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 4, article e18850, 2011.
- E. Mulugeta, F. Molina-Holgado, M. S. Elliott et al., “Inflammatory mediators in the frontal lobe of patients with mixed and vascular dementia,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 278–286, 2008.
- M. Sjögren, S. Folkesson, K. Blennow, and E. Tarkowski, “Increased intrathecal inflammatory activity in frontotemporal dementia: pathophysiological implications,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 75, no. 8, pp. 1107–1111, 2004.
- C. Yasutake, K. Kuroda, T. Yanagawa, T. Okamura, and H. Yoneda, “Serum BDNF, TNF-α and IL-1β levels in dementia patients: comparison between Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia,” European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 256, no. 7, pp. 402–406, 2006.
- P. S. Aisen, J. Cummings, and L. S. Schneider, “Symptomatic and nonamyloid/tau based pharmacologic treatment for Alzheimer disease,” Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, vol. 2, Article ID a006395, 2012.
- M. G. E. K. N. Isaac, R. Quinn, and N. Tabet, “Vitamin E for Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 3, Article ID CD002854, 2008.
- D. R. Galasko, E. Peskind, C. M. Clark, et al., “Antioxidants for Alzheimer disease: a randomized clinical trial with cerebrospinal fluid biomarker measures,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 69, no. 7, pp. 836–841, 2012.
- L. A. Boothby and P. L. Doering, “Vitamin C vitamin E for Alzheimer's disease,” Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 2073–2080, 2005.
- A. Lloret, M. Badía, N. J. Mora, F. V. Pallardó, M. Alonso, and J. Viña, “Vitamin e paradox in alzheimer's disease: it does not prevent loss of cognition and may even be detrimental,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 143–149, 2009.
- B. W. Miller, K. C. Willett, and A. R. Desilets, “Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease,” Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 1416–1424, 2011.
- Y. Freund-Levi, E. Hjorth, C. Lindberg et al., “Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on inflammatory markers in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma in alzheimer's disease: the omegad study,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 481–490, 2009.
- E. L. Tobinick and H. Gross, “Rapid improvement in verbal fluency and aphasia following perispinal etanercept in Alzheimer's disease,” BMC Neurology, vol. 8, article 27, 2008.
- E. Tobinick, “Perispinal etanercept for treatment of Alzheimer's disease,” Current Alzheimer Research, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 550–552, 2007.
- H. C. A. Emsley, C. J. Smith, R. F. Georgiou et al., “A randomised phase II study of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in acute stroke patients,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 76, no. 10, pp. 1366–1372, 2005.
- S. S. Shaftel, W. S. Griffin, and M. K. O'Banion, “The role of interleukin-1 in neuroinflammation and Alzheimer disease: an evolving perspective,” Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol. 5, article 7, 2008.
- M. N. Sabbagh, A. Agro, J. Bell, P. S. Aisen, E. Schweizer, and D. Galasko, “PF-04494700, an oral inhibitor of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), in Alzheimer disease,” Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 206–212, 2011.
- Y. Cui, B. Liu, S. Luo et al., “Identification of conversion from mild cognitive impairment to alzheimer's disease using multivariate predictors,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 7, article e21896, 2011.
- M. E. Bamberger, M. E. Harris, D. R. McDonald, J. Husemann, and G. E. Landreth, “A cell surface receptor complex for fibrillar β-amyloid mediates microglial activation,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 2665–2674, 2003.
- J. Koenigsknecht-Talboo and G. E. Landreth, “Microglial phagocytosis induced by fibrillar β-amyloid and IgGs are differentially regulated by proinflammatory cytokines,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 25, no. 36, pp. 8240–8249, 2005.
- K. Heese, C. Hock, and U. Otten, “Inflammatory signals induce neurotrophin expression in human microglial cells,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 699–707, 1998.
- S. L. Montgomery, M. A. Mastrangelo, D. Habib et al., “Ablation of TNF-RI/RII expression in Alzheimer's disease mice leads to an unexpected enhancement of pathology: implications for chronic pan-TNF-α suppressive therapeutic strategies in the brain,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 179, no. 4, pp. 2053–2070, 2011.
- B. C. M. Stephan, S. Hunter, D. Harris et al., “The neuropathological profile of mild cognitive impairment (MCI): a systematic review,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 1056–1076, 2012.