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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 326346, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/326346
Research Article

Response of C2C12 Myoblasts to Hypoxia: The Relative Roles of Glucose and Oxygen in Adaptive Cellular Metabolism

1Clinical Medicine Education Center, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China
2Department of Plastic Surgery, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China
3Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China

Received 3 July 2013; Revised 22 September 2013; Accepted 23 September 2013

Academic Editor: Joohun Ha

Copyright © 2013 Wei Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Oxygen and glucose are two important nutrients for mammalian cell function. In this study, the effect of glucose and oxygen concentrations on C2C12 cellular metabolism was characterized with an emphasis on detecting whether cells show oxygen conformance (OC) in response to hypoxia. Methods. After C2C12 cells being cultured in the levels of glucose at 0.6 mM (LG), 5.6 mM (MG), or 23.3 mM(HG) under normoxic or hypoxic (1% oxygen) condition, cellular oxygen consumption, glucose consumption, lactate production, and metabolic status were determined. Short-term oxygen consumption was measured with a novel oxygen biosensor technique. Longer-term measurements were performed with standard glucose, lactate, and cell metabolism assays. Results. It was found that oxygen depletion in normoxia is dependent on the glucose concentration in the medium. Cellular glucose uptake and lactate production increased significantly in hypoxia than those in normoxia. In hypoxia the cellular response to the level of glucose was different to that in normoxia. The metabolic activities decreased while glucose concentration increased in normoxia, while in hypoxia, metabolic activity was reduced in LG and MG, but unchanged in HG condition. The OC phenomenon was not observed in the present study. Conclusions. Our findings suggested that a combination of low oxygen and low glucose damages the viability of C2C12 cells more seriously than low oxygen alone. In addition, when there is sufficient glucose, C2C12 cells will respond to hypoxia by upregulating anaerobic respiration, as shown by lactate production.