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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 340727, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/340727
Research Article

Monocyte Locomotion Inhibitory Factor Produced by E. histolytica Improves Motor Recovery and Develops Neuroprotection after Traumatic Injury to the Spinal Cord

1Unidad de Investigación Médica en Inmunología, Hospital de Pediatría, CMN-Siglo XXI, IMSS, Avenida Cuauhtémoc 330, Col. Doctores, Delegación Cuauhtémoc, 06720 México, DF, Mexico
2Posgrado en Ciencias en Inmunología, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Prolongación de Carpio y Plan de Ayala, Col. Santo Tomas, 11340 México, DF, Mexico
3Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Anáhuac, México Norte, Avenida Universidad Anáhuac 46, Col. Lomas Anáhuac, 52786 Huixquilucan, MEX, Mexico
4Centro de Investigación del Proyecto CAMINA, A.C, Tlalpan 4430, Col. Toriello Guerra, 14050 México, DF, Mexico
5División de Investigación, Facultad de Medicina, UNAM, Avenida Universidad 3000, 04510 México, DF, Mexico
6Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza, UNAM, Batalla 5 de Mayo/Fuerte de Loreto, Col. Ejercito de Oriente, 09230 México, DF, Mexico

Received 22 April 2013; Revised 4 September 2013; Accepted 8 September 2013

Academic Editor: Hartmut Jaeschke

Copyright © 2013 Gabriela Bermeo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor (MLIF) is a pentapeptide produced by Entamoeba histolytica that has a potent anti-inflammatory effect. Either MLIF or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was administered directly onto the spinal cord (SC) immediately after injury. Motor recovery was evaluated. We also analyzed neuroprotection by quantifying the number of surviving ventral horn motor neurons and the persistence of rubrospinal tract neurons. To evaluate the mechanism through which MLIF improved the outcome of SC injury, we quantified the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) genes at the site of injury. Finally, the levels of nitric oxide and of lipid peroxidation were also determined in peripheral blood. Results showed that MLIF improved the rate of motor recovery and this correlated with an increased survival of ventral horn and rubrospinal neurons. These beneficial effects were in turn associated with a reduction in iNOS gene products and a significant upregulation of IL-10 and TGF-β expression. In the same way, MLIF reduced the concentration of nitric oxide and the levels of lipid peroxidation in systemic circulation. The present results demonstrate for the first time the neuroprotective effects endowed by MLIF after SC injury.