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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 347103, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/347103
Research Article

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection following Kidney Transplantation

1Internal Medecine Department, Charles Nicole Hospital, Boulevard 9 Avril, Bab Souika, 1006 Tunis, Tunisia
2Pediatric Department, Charles Nicole Hospital, Tunisia
3Research Laboratory of Immunology (LR03SP01), Tunisia

Received 6 April 2013; Accepted 19 June 2013

Academic Editor: Florian Toegel

Copyright © 2013 Karima Boubaker et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Introduction and Aims. Post-transplant tuberculosis (TB) is a problem in successful long-term outcome of renal transplantation recipients. Our objective was to describe the pattern and risk factors of TB infection and the prognosis in our transplant recipients. Patients and Methods. This study was a retrospective review of the records of 491 renal transplant recipients in our hospital during the period from January 1986 to December 2009. The demographic data, transplant characteristics, clinical manifestations, diagnostic criteria, treatment protocol, and long-term outcome of this cohort of patients were analyzed. Results. 16 patients (3,2%) developed post-transplant TB with a mean age of 32,5 ± 12,7 (range: 13–60) years and a mean post-transplant period of 36,6months (range: 12,3 months–15,9 years). The forms of the diseases were pulmonary in 10/16 (62,6%), disseminated in 3/16 (18,7%), and extrapulmonary in 3/16 (18,7%). Graft dysfunction was observed in 7 cases (43,7%) with tissue-proof acute rejection in 3 cases and loss of the graft in 4 cases. Hepatotoxicity developed in 3 patients (18,7%) during treatment. Recurrences were observed in 4 cases after early stop of treatment. Two patients (12.5%) died. Conclusion. Extra pulmonary and disseminated tuberculosis were observed in third of our patients. More than 9months of treatment may be necessary to prevent recurrence.