About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 349530, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/349530
Clinical Study

Reduced Cortisol in Boys with Early-Onset Conduct Disorder and Callous-Unemotional Traits

1Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Neuenhofer Weg 21, 52074 Aachen, Germany
2Child Neuropsychology Section, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany
3JARA Translational Medicine, Aachen and Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany
4Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Universitätsklinikum Gießen und Marburg GmbH, Campus Marburg, Hans-Sachs-Straße 4, 35039 Marburg, Germany
5Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany

Received 6 April 2013; Accepted 21 May 2013

Academic Editor: Tomoshige Kino

Copyright © 2013 Georg G. von Polier et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. H. M. van Goozen, G. Fairchild, H. Snoek, and G. T. Harold, “The evidence for a neurobiological model of childhood antisocial behavior,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 149–182, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. C. Herpertz, T. Vloet, B. Mueller, G. Domes, K. Willmes, and B. Herpertz-Dahlmann, “Similar autonomic responsivity in boys with conduct disorder and their fathers,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 535–544, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. Haller, J. Halász, É. Mikics, and M. R. Kruk, “Chronic glucocorticoid deficiency-induced abnormal aggression, autonomic hypoarousal, and social deficit in rats,” Journal of Neuroendocrinology, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 550–557, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Zuckerman and M. Neeb, “Sensation seeking and psychopathology,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 255–264, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. L. Ruttle, E. A. Shirtcliff, L. A. Serbin, D. Ben-Dat Fisher, D. M. Stack, and A. E. Schwartzman, “Disentangling psychobiological mechanisms underlying internalizing and externalizing behaviors in youth: longitudinal and concurrent associations with cortisol,” Hormones and Behavior, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 123–132, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. Azar, M. Zoccolillo, D. Paquette, E. Quiros, F. Baltzer, and R. E. Tremblay, “Cortisol levels and conduct disorder in adolescent mothers,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 461–468, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. G. Fairchild, S. H. M. van Goozen, S. J. Stollery et al., “Cortisol diurnal rhythm and stress reactivity in male adolescents with early-onset or adolescence-onset conduct disorder,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 599–606, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. L. R. A. Alink, M. H. van IJzendoorn, M. J. Bakermans-Kranenburg, J. Mesman, F. Juffer, and H. M. Koot, “Cortisol and externalizing behavior in children and adolescents: mixed meta-analytic evidence for the inverse relation of basal cortisol and cortisol reactivity with externalizing behavior,” Developmental Psychobiology, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 427–450, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. G. D. Shoal, P. R. Giancola, and G. P. Kirillova, “Salivary cortisol, personality, and aggressive behavior in adolescent boys: a 5-year longitudinal study,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 1101–1107, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Popma, T. A. H. Doreleijers, L. M. C. Jansen, S. H. M. Van Goozen, H. Van Engeland, and R. Vermeiren, “The diurnal cortisol cycle in delinquent male adolescents and normal controls,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1622–1628, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. Larson, S. A. Russ, R. S. Kahn, and N. Halfon, “Patterns of comorbidity, functioning, and service use for US children with ADHD, 2007,” Pediatrics, vol. 127, no. 3, pp. 462–470, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. Ma, Y. Chen, H. Chen, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “The function of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in children with ADHD,” Brain Research, vol. 1368, pp. 159–162, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H. J. Hong, D. W. Shin, E. H. Lee, Y. H. Oh, and K. S. Noh, “Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal reactivity in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Yonsei Medical Journal, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 608–614, 2003. View at Scopus
  14. G. Fairchild, “Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder,” in Behavioral Neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Its Treatment, pp. 93–111, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2012.
  15. B. R. Loney, M. A. Butler, E. N. Lima, C. A. Counts, and L. A. Eckel, “The relation between salivary cortisol, callous-unemotional traits, and conduct problems in an adolescent non-referred sample,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 30–36, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Cima, T. Smeets, and M. Jelicic, “Self-reported trauma, cortisol levels, and aggression in psychopathic and non-psychopathic prison inmates,” Biological Psychology, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 75–86, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. L. Byrd, R. Loeber, and D. A. Pardini, “Understanding desisting and persisting forms of delinquency: the unique contributions of disruptive behavior disorders and interpersonal callousness,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 371–380, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Gunnar and K. Quevedo, “The neurobiology of stress and development,” Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 58, pp. 145–173, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. M. Lösel, E. Falkenstein, M. Feuring et al., “Nongenomic steroid action: controversies, questions, and answers,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 965–1016, 2003. View at Scopus
  20. J. P. Herman, J. M. Mcklveen, M. B. Solomon, E. Carvalho-Netto, and B. Myers, “Neural regulation of the stress response: glucocorticoid feedback mechanisms,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 292–298, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Dawel, R. O'Kearney, E. McKone, and R. Palermo, “Not just fear and sadness: meta-analytic evidence of pervasive emotion recognition deficits for facial and vocal expressions in psychopathy,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 2288–2304, 2012.
  22. E. A. Shirtcliff, M. J. Vitacco, A. R. Graf, A. J. Gostisha, J. L. Merz, and C. Zahn-Waxler, “Neurobiology of empathy and callousness: implications for the development of antisocial behavior,” Behavioral Sciences and the Law, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 137–171, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. M. O'Leary, B. R. Loney, and L. A. Eckel, “Gender differences in the association between psychopathic personality traits and cortisol response to induced stress,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 183–191, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. M. O'Leary, J. Taylor, and L. Eckel, “Psychopathic personality traits and cortisol response to stress: the role of sex, type of stressor, and menstrual phase,” Hormones and Behavior, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 250–256, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. T. Vaillancourt and S. Sunderani, “Psychopathy and indirect aggression: the roles of cortisol, sex, and type of psychopathy,” Brain and Cognition, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 170–175, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. L. Glenn, A. Raine, R. A. Schug, Y. Gao, and D. A. Granger, “Increased testosterone-to-cortisol ratio in psychopathy,” Journal of Abnormal Psychology, vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 389–399, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. Stadler, A. Kroeger, P. Weyers et al., “Cortisol reactivity in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and disruptive behavior problems: the impact of callous unemotional traits,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 187, no. 1-2, pp. 204–209, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. L. Poustka, A. Maras, E. Hohm et al., “Negative association between plasma cortisol levels and aggression in a high-risk community sample of adolescents,” Journal of Neural Transmission, vol. 117, no. 5, pp. 621–627, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E. Fries, L. Dettenborn, and C. Kirschbaum, “The cortisol awakening response (CAR): facts and future directions,” International Journal of Psychophysiology, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 67–73, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2000.
  31. T. E. Moffitt, “Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: a developmental taxonomy,” Psychological Review, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 674–701, 1993. View at Scopus
  32. L. Passamonti, G. Fairchild, I. M. Goodyer et al., “Neural abnormalities in early-onset and adolescence-onset conduct disorder,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 67, no. 7, pp. 729–738, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. F. Petermann and U. Petermann, Hamburg-Wechsler-Intelligenztest für Kinder IV (HAWIK-IV), Hogrefe, Göttingen, Germany, 2007.
  34. J. Kaufman, B. Birmaher, D. Brent et al., “Schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children-present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL): initial reliability and validity data,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 980–988, 1997. View at Scopus
  35. C. Delmo, O. Welffenbach, M. Gabriel, C. Stadler, and F. Poustka, Diagnostisches Interview Kiddie-Sads Present and Lifetime Version (K-SAD-PL), Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie des Kindes- und Jugendalters, Frankfurt, Germany, 2001.
  36. L. C. Hibel, D. A. Granger, D. Cicchetti, and F. Rogosch, “Salivary biomarker levels and diurnal variation: associations with medications prescribed to control children's problem behavior,” Child Development, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 927–937, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. N. Michels, I. Sioen, I. Huybrechts et al., “Negative life events, emotions and psychological difficulties as determinants of salivary cortisol in Belgian primary school children,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 1506–1515, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. P. J. Frick and R. Hare, The Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD), Multi-Health Systems, Berkshire, Mass, USA, 2001.
  39. M. Döpfner, A. Görtz-Dorten, and G. Lehmkuhl, Diagnostik-System für psychische Störungen nach ICD-10 und DSM-IV für Kinder- und Jugendliche (DISYPS-II), Huber, Bern, Switzerland, 2008.
  40. D. Breuer, T. W. Metternich, and M. Döpfner, “The assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by teacher ratings—validity and reliability of the FBB-HKS,” Zeitschrift für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 431–440, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. E. B. Binder and F. Holsboer, “Low cortisol and risk and resilience to stress-related psychiatric disorders,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 282–283, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. J. Gray, B. T. Litz, J. L. Hsu, and T. W. Lombardo, “Psychometric properties of the life events checklist,” Assessment, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 330–341, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. D. D. Blake, F. W. Weathers, L. M. Nagy et al., “The development of a clinician-administered PTSD scale,” Journal of Traumatic Stress, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 75–90, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. R. Steil and G. F. üchsel, IBS-KJ: Interviews zu Belastungsstörungen bei Kindern und Jugendlichen, Hogrefe, Göttingen, Germany, 2005.
  45. T. M. Achenbach, Child Behavior Checklist—Deutsche Version, Hogreve, Göttingen, Germany, 1991.
  46. Arbeitsgruppe Deutsche Child Behavior Checklist, Elternfragebogen über das Verhalten von Kindern und Jugendlichen; deutsche Bearbeitung der Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/4-18). Einführung und Anleitung zur Handauswertung mit deutschen Normen, Arbeitsgruppe Kinder-, Jugend- und Familiendiagnostik (KJFD), Köln, Germany, 1998.
  47. J. C. Pruessner, C. Kirschbaum, G. Meinlschmid, and D. H. Hellhammer, “Two formulas for computation of the area under the curve represent measures of total hormone concentration versus time-dependent change,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 916–931, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. N. Michels, I. Sioen, T. De Vriendt, I. Huybrechts, B. Vanaelst, and S. De Henauw, “Children's morning and evening salivary cortisol: pattern, instruction compliance and sampling confounders,” Hormone Research in Paediatrics, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 27–35, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. E. Girden, ANOVA: Repeated Measures, Sage, Newbury Park, Calif, USA, 1992.
  50. C. M. Freitag, S. Hänig, H. Palmason, J. Meyer, S. Wüst, and C. Seitz, “Cortisol awakening response in healthy children and children with ADHD: impact of comorbid disorders and psychosocial risk factors,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1019–1028, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. E. F. Coccaro, C. S. Sripada, R. N. Yanowitch, and K. L. Phan, “Corticolimbic function in impulsive aggressive behavior,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 69, no. 12, pp. 1153–1159, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. American Psychiatric Association, Callous and Unemotional Specifier For Conduct Disorder, American Psychiatric Association, 2012.
  53. A. Pesonen, E. Kajantie, A. Jones et al., “Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children are associated with cortisol responses to psychosocial stress but not with daily cortisol levels,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 1471–1476, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. F. E. P. L. Sondeijker, R. F. Ferdinand, A. J. Oldehinkel et al., “Disruptive behaviors and HPA-axis activity in young adolescent boys and girls from the general population,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 570–578, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. D. A. Kertes and M. van Dulmen, “Latent state trait modeling of children's cortisol at two points of the diurnal cycle,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 249–255, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. D. Haltigan, G. I. Roisman, E. J. Susman, K. Barnett-Walker, and K. C. Monahan, “Elevated trajectories of externalizing problems are associated with lower awakening cortisol levels in midadolescence,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 472–478, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus