Table 1: Group comparisons.

EO-CDHealthy controls
MeanSDMeanSD

Age (years)11.92.412.52.7
IQ97.0*12.2110.7*14.8
Tanner-stage1.91.62.31.7
Externalizing problemsa77.1*6.849.3*8.1
Internalizing problemsa71.2*8.653.3*9.5
Hyperactivityb2.8*2.60.20.5
Impulsivityb2.4*1.60.60.1
Callous-unemotional traitsa66.8*9.548.4*7.8
Awakening time (hours:min)07:2200:2907:3901:18
AUC: awakening cortisol (nmol/L*h)554.9286.8622.3230.1
AUC: diurnal cortisol (nmol/L*h)2747.21643.83005.41769.0

Group comparisons by means of -test; AUC: area under the curve; EO-CD: early-onset conduct disorder; min: minutes; a -values are indicated; bnumber of fulfilled DSM-IV criteria are indicated; * .