Table 1: Patients’ demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics, comparison between diabetic and non-diabetic patients.

All patients Non-diabetic Diabetic p value

Clinical characteristics
 Age (years), median (IQR)79 (72–84)80 (69–86)78 (72–83)0.06
 Male sex, n (%)261 (44.3)131 (45.2)130 (43.5)0.68
 Ischemic aetiology of HF, n (%)235 (39.9)100 (34.5)135 (45.2)0.008
 Arterial hypertension history, n (%)438 (76.7)185 (66.1)253 (86.9)<0.001
 Atrial fibrillation history, n (%)269 (46.1)134 (47.0)135 (45.3)0.68
 LVSF, n (%)
  Preserved255 (44.7)131 (46.1)124 (43.2)
  Mild LVSD35 (6.1)18 (6.3)17 (5.9)
  Moderate LVSD85 (14.9)38 (13.4)47 (16.4)
  Severe LVSD196 (34.3)97 (34.2)99 (34.5)0.76
 NYHA class at admission (IV versus others), n (%)355 (60.4)163 (56.4)192 (64.2)0.05
 SBP at admission (mmHg), median (IQR)131 (115–152)132 (113–151)131 (115–152)0.76
 BMI at admission (Kg/m2), median (IQR)25.2 (22.6–27.7)24.3 (22.1–27.0)25.9 (23.2–28.5)<0.001
Laboratory at discharge
 Haemoglobin (g/dL), mean (SD)11.8 (10.5–13.2)12.0 (10.6–13.5)11.8 (10.4–13.0)0.20
 Anaemia, n (%)350 (60.2)165 (57.9)185 (62.5)0.26
 Creatinine (mg/dL), median (IQR)1.30 (1.05–1.71)1.28 (1.00–1.60)1.37 (1.10–1.85)<0.001
 Renal dysfunction, n (%)209 (35.8)86 (30.1)123 (41.4)0.004
 Sodium (mEq/L), median, IQR138 (135–140)138 (135–140)137 (135–140)0.54
 Hyponatremia, n (%)141 (24.4)69 (24.4)72 (24.3)0.99
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL), median (IQR)151 (125–180)156 (132–187)142 (121–174)0.002
 C-reactive protein (mg/L), median (IQR)12.8 (6.1–26.8)12.9 (6.1–28.6)12.8 (6.0–25.4)0.50
 BNP (pg/mL), median (IQR)743.8 (304.0–1385.4)722.8 (262.9–1326.6)767.0 (337.0–1476.2)0.20
 Glycosylated haemoglobin (%), median (IQR)6.2 (5.7–6.9)5.8 (5.5–6.0)6.9 (6.5–7.8)<0.001
Discharge medication
 Beta-blocker, n (%)445 (75.9)212 (73.4)233 (78.5)0.15
 ACEi or ARB, n (%)466 (79.4)220 (76.1)249 (82.6)0.05
 Spironolactone, n (%)137 (23.4)77 (26.6)60 (20.2)0.08
 Statin, n (%)353 (61.6)152 (54.1)201 (68.8)<0.001
 Antiplatelet drugs, n (%)382 (66.4)166 (58.9)216 (73.7)<0.001

HF death, n (%)89 (15.1)45 (15.6)44 (14.7)0.77

ACEi: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB: angiotensin II receptor 1 blocker, BMI: body mass index; BNP: B-type natriuretic peptide; HF: heart failure; IQR: interquartile range; LVSD: left ventricular systolic dysfunction; LVSF: Left ventricular systolic function; NYHA: New York Heart Association; SBP: systolic blood pressure.