About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 363728, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/363728
Clinical Study

Dietary Intake as a Link between Obesity, Systemic Inflammation, and the Assumption of Multiple Cardiovascular and Antidiabetic Drugs in Renal Transplant Recipients

1Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Physiology Nutrition Unit, University Federico II of Naples, Via Sergio Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
2Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, University Federico II of Naples, Naples, Italy
3Department of Public Health, Nephrology Unit, University Federico II of Naples, 80131 Naples, Italy

Received 30 April 2013; Accepted 1 July 2013

Academic Editor: Christophe Duranton

Copyright © 2013 Bruna Guida et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. National Kidney Foundation, K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nutrition in Chronic Renal Failure, National Kidney Foundation, New York, NY, USA, 2001.
  2. National Kidney Foundation, “K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for managing dyslipidemias in chronic kidney disease,” American Journal of Kidney Disease, vol. 41, supplement 3, pp. S1–S92, 2003.
  3. Greater Metropolitan Clinical Taskforce (Renal Services Network), Evidence-Based Guidelines for the Nutritional Management of Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients, GMCT, Sydney, Australia, 2008.
  4. National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III), “Third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report,” Circulation, vol. 106, no. 25, pp. 3143–3421, 2002.
  5. Società Italiana di Nutrizione Umana, Ed., Livelli Di Assunzione Raccomandati Di Energia E nutrienti per La PopoLazione Italiana, LARN (Daily Assumption of Nutrient Levels for the Italian PopuLation), 1996.
  6. European Food Standards Agency (EFSA), 2010.
  7. J. A. Beto and V. K. Bansal, “Medical nutrition therapy in chronic kidney failure: integrating clinical practice guidelines,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 104, no. 3, pp. 404–409, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. Martins, R. Pecoits-Filho, and M. C. Riella, “Nutrition for the post-renal transplant recipients,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1650–1654, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. National Kidney Foundation Work Group Members, “Clinical practice guidelines for managing dyslipidemias in kidney transplant patients: a report from the managing dyslipidemias in chronic kidney disease work group of the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 4, supplement 7, pp. 13–53, 2004.
  10. J. A. Yanovski and G. B. Cutler Jr., “Glucocorticoid action and the clinical features of Cushing's syndrome,” Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 487–509, 1994. View at Scopus
  11. T. Pischon and A. M. Sharma, “Obesity as a risk factor in renal transplant patients,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 14–17, 2001. View at Scopus
  12. J. Hjelmesæth, A. Hartmann, K. Midtvedt et al., “Metabolic cardiovascular syndrome after renal transplantation,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1047–1052, 2001. View at Scopus
  13. A. P. J. De Vries, S. J. L. Bakker, W. J. Van Son et al., “Metabolic syndrome is associated with impaired long-term renal allograft function; not all component criteria contribute equally,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 1675–1683, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. B. L. Kasiske, M. A. Vazquez, W. E. Harmon et al., “Recommendations for the outpatient surveillance of renal transplant recipients,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 11, no. 15, pp. S1–S86, 2000. View at Scopus
  15. R. Lauzurica, M. C. Pastor, B. Bayés et al., “F2-isoprostanes in kidney transplant patients: relationship with inflammatory markers,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 3842–3843, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. B. R. Bistrian, “Clinical aspects of essential fatty acid metabolism: Jonathan Rhoads lecture,” Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 168–175, 2003. View at Scopus
  17. S. A. Brown, C. A. Brown, W. A. Crowell et al., “Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in early renal insufficiency in dogs,” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol. 135, no. 3, pp. 275–286, 2000. View at Scopus
  18. F. Lauretani, R. D. Semba, S. Bandinelli et al., “Plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and the decline of renal function,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 475–481, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. U. Steiger, K. Lippuner, E. X. Jensen, A. Montandon, J. P. Jaeger Ph., and F. F. Horber, “Body composition and fuel metabolism after kidney grafting,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 809–816, 1995. View at Scopus
  20. C. P. Johnson, S. Gallagher-Lepak, Y.-R. Zhu et al., “Factors influencing weight gain after renal transplantation,” Transplantation, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 822–827, 1993. View at Scopus
  21. G. W. Strain and B. Zumoff, “The relationship of weight-height indices of obesity to body fat content,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 715–718, 1992. View at Scopus
  22. D. P. Kotler, S. Burastero, J. Wang, and R. N. Pierson Jr., “Prediction of body cell mass, fat-free mass, and total body water with bioelectrical impedance analysis: effects of race, sex, and disease,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. S489–S497, 1996. View at Scopus
  23. B. Guida, R. Trio, A. Nastasi et al., “Body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in pretransplant hemodialysis patients,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 363–372, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Gersovitz, J. P. Madden, and H. Smiciklas-Wright, “Validity of the 24-hr. dietary recall and seven-day record for group comparisons,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 48–55, 1978. View at Scopus
  25. Tabelle Di Composizione Degli Alimenti, Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca per gli Alimenti (INRAN), 2003.
  26. Istituto Europeo Oncologico (IEO), “Banca Dati di Composizione degli Alimenti per Studi Epidemiologici in Italia (BDA),” http://www.ieo.it/bda2008/index.aspx.
  27. W. Souci, W. Fachmann, and H. Kraut, Tabelle Di Composizione Degli Alimenti, 1994.
  28. B. Memoli, G. Grandaliano, M. Soccio et al., “In vivo modulation of soluble “antagonistic” IL-6 receptor synthesis and release in ESRD,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 1099–1107, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. B. K. Krämer, D. Del Castillo, R. Margreiter et al., “Efficacy and safety of tacrolimus compared with ciclosporin a in renal transplantation: three-year observational results,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 2386–2392, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. Pfeiffer, K. H. Albrecht, K. Wagner, S. Herget, and F. W. Eigler, “The effect of obesity on outcome of kidney transplantation,” Medizinische Klinik, vol. 89, no. 12, pp. 635–639, 1994. View at Scopus
  31. “Report Passi,” http://www.epicentro.iss.it/passi/R2010SovrappesoObesita.asp, 2012.
  32. R. Laccetti, A. Pota, S. Stranges et al., “Evidence on the prevalence and geographic distribution of major cardiovascular risk factors in Italy,” Public Health Nutrition, vol. 16, pp. 305–315, 2013.
  33. F. B. Hu, J. E. Manson, M. J. Stampfer et al., “Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 345, no. 11, pp. 790–797, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. I. Baik, A. Ascherio, E. B. Rimm et al., “Adiposity and mortality in men,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 152, no. 3, pp. 264–271, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. Romero-Corral, V. K. Somers, J. Sierra-Johnson et al., “Normal weight obesity: a risk factor for cardiometabolic dysregulation and cardiovascular mortality,” European Heart Journal, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 737–746, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. E. J. Jacobs, C. C. Newton, Y. Wang et al., “Waist circumference and all-cause mortality in a large US cohort,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 170, no. 15, pp. 1293–1301, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. T. Coutinho, K. Goel, D. Corrêa De S et al., “Central obesity and survival in subjects with coronary artery disease: a systematic review of the literature and collaborative analysis with individual subject data,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 57, no. 19, pp. 1877–1886, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. T. Coutinho, K. Goel, D. Corrêa de Sá et al., “Combining body mass index with measures of central obesity in the assessment of mortality in subjects with coronary disease: role of “normal weight central obesity”,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 61, pp. 553–560, 2013.
  39. M. L. Slattery, A. McDonald, D. E. Bild et al., “Associations of body fat and its distribution with dietary intake, physical activity, alcohol, and smoking in blacks and whites,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 943–949, 1992. View at Scopus
  40. J. N. Davis, V. A. Hodges, and M. B. Gillham, “Normal-weight adults consume more fiber and fruit than their age- and height-matched overweight/obese counterparts,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 106, no. 6, pp. 833–840, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. Y. Sakata and H. Shimokawa, “Saturated fatty acid intake and cardiovascular risk,” European Heart Journal, vol. 34, pp. 1178–1180, 2013.
  42. R. F. Grimble, “Dietary lipids and the inflammatory response,” Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 535–542, 1998. View at Scopus
  43. B. Memoli, A. Procino, P. Calabrò et al., “Inflammation may modulate IL-6 and C-reactive protein gene expression in the adipose tissue: the role of IL-6 cell membrane receptor,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 293, no. 4, pp. E1030–E1035, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. G. Engström, B. Hedblad, L. Stavenow, P. Lind, L. Janzon, and F. Lindgärde, “Inflammation-sensitive plasma proteins are associated with future weight gain,” Diabetes, vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 2097–2101, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. T. H. Hostetter, T. W. Meyer, and H. G. Rennke, “Chronic effects of dietary protein in the rat with intact and reduced renal mass,” Kidney International, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 509–517, 1986. View at Scopus
  46. A. Bernardi, F. Biasia, T. Pati, M. Piva, A. D'Angelo, and G. Bucciante, “Long-term protein intake control in kidney transplant recipients: effect in kidney graft function and in nutritional status,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. S146–S152, 2003. View at Scopus
  47. B. L. Heitmann and L. Lissner, “Dietary underreporting by obese individuals—is it specific or non-specific?” British Medical Journal, vol. 311, no. 7011, pp. 986–989, 1995. View at Scopus
  48. A. Fernström, B. Hylander, and S. Rössner, “Taste acuity in patients with chronic renal failure,” Clinical Nephrology, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 169–174, 1996. View at Scopus
  49. J. C. Verhave, H. L. Hillege, J. G. M. Burgerhof et al., “Sodium intake affects urinary albumin excretion especially in overweight subjects,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 256, no. 4, pp. 324–330, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. U.S. Department of Agriculture http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2010/DietaryGuidelines2010.pdf, 2010.
  51. S. Liu, W. C. Willett, J. E. Manson, F. B. Hu, B. Rosner, and G. Colditz, “Relation between changes in intakes of dietary fiber and grain products and changes in weight and development of obesity among middle-aged women,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 920–927, 2003. View at Scopus
  52. V. M. R. Krishnamurthy, G. Wei, B. C. Baird et al., “High dietary fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease,” Kidney International, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 300–306, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. A. P. Simopoulos, “The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids,” Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, vol. 56, pp. 365–379, 2002.