About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 370354, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/370354
Research Article

Differences in Plasma Cytokine Levels between Elite Kayakers and Nonathletes

1Center for Sports and Physical Activity, Sport Sciences and Physical Education School, University of Coimbra, 3040-156 Coimbra, Portugal
2Health and Biotechnology Institute, Federal University of Amazonas, 69460-000 Coari, AM, Brazil
3Center of Histocompatibility, 3001-301 Coimbra, Portugal
4Human Kinetics School, Technical University of Lisbon, 1499-002 Lisbon, Portugal
5Estádio Universitário, Pavilhão 3, Sta. Clara, 3040-156 Coimbra, Portugal

Received 15 April 2013; Accepted 14 May 2013

Academic Editor: Akito Tanoue

Copyright © 2013 G. F. Borges et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. N. Blair, Y. Cheng, and J. Scott Holder, “Is physical activity or physical fitness more important in defining health benefits?” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. S379–S399, 2001. View at Scopus
  2. J. A. Jolliffe, K. Rees, R. S. Taylor, D. Thompson, N. Oldridge, and S. Ebrahim, “Exercise-based rehabilitation for coronary heart disease,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 1, Article ID CD001800, 2001. View at Scopus
  3. M. F. Piepoli, “Exercise training meta-analysis of trials in patients with chronic heart failure (ExTraMATCH),” The British Medical Journal, vol. 328, no. 7433, pp. 189–192, 2004. View at Scopus
  4. N. G. Boulé, E. Haddad, G. P. Kenny, G. A. Wells, and R. J. Sigal, “Effects of exercise on glycemic control and body mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 286, no. 10, pp. 1218–1227, 2001. View at Scopus
  5. Y. Lacasse, R. Goldstein, T. J. Lasserson, and S. Martin, “Pulmonary rehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 4, Article ID CD003793, 2006. View at Scopus
  6. C. Brandt and B. K. Pedersen, “The role of exercise-induced myokines in muscle homeostasis and the defense against chronic diseases,” Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, vol. 2010, Article ID 520258, 6 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Z. Zhang, L. Zhang, and J. Xu, “The effects of different exercise training mode on interleukins,” Life Science Journal, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 82–86, 2007.
  8. H. Bruunsgaard, S. Ladelund, A. N. Pedersen, M. Schroll, T. Jørgensen, and B. K. Pedersen, “Predicting death from tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in 80-year-old people,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 24–31, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. Brüünsgaard and B. K. Pedersen, “Age-related inflammatory cytokines and disease,” Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 15–39, 2003.
  10. M. Gleeson, “Immune function in sport and exercise,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 693–699, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Gleeson, “Immune system adaptation in elite athletes,” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 659–665, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. A. Moynihan, T. A. Callahan, S. P. Kelley, and L. M. Campbell, “Adrenal hormone modulation of type 1 and type 2 cytokine production by spleen cells: dexamethasone and dehydroepiandrosterone suppress interleukin-2, interleukin-4, and interferon-γ production in vitro,” Cellular Immunology, vol. 184, no. 1, pp. 58–64, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. G. I. Lancaster, S. L. Halson, Q. Khan et al., “Effects of acute exhaustive exercise and chronic exercise training on type 1 and type 2 T lymphocytes,” Exercise Immunology Review, vol. 10, pp. 91–106, 2004. View at Scopus
  14. H. Northofff, A. Berg, and C. Weinstock, “Similarities and differences of the immune response to exercise and trauma: the IFN-γ concept,” Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 497–504, 1998. View at Scopus
  15. J. M. Morgado, L. Rama, I. Silva et al., “Cytokine production by monocytes, neutrophils, and dendritic cells is hampered by long-term intensive training in elite swimmers,” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 112, no. 2, pp. 471–482, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Gleeson, N. C. Bishop, D. J. Stensel, M. R. Lindley, and S. S. Mastana, “The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise: mechanisms and implications for the prevention and treatment of disease,” Nature Reviews, Immunology, vol. 11, pp. 607–615, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. D. P. Harris, S. Goodrich, A. J. Gerth, S. L. Peng, and F. E. Lund, “Regulation of IFN-γ production by B effector 1 cells: essential roles for T-bet and the IFN-γ receptor,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 174, no. 11, pp. 6781–6790, 2005. View at Scopus
  18. L. Rama, A. M. Teixeira, A. Matos et al., “Changes in natural killer cell subpopulations over a winter training season in elite swimmers,” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 113, no. 4, pp. 859–868, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. M. Gleeson and N. C. Bishop, “The T cell and NK cell immune response to exercise,” Annals of Transplantation, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 43–48, 2005. View at Scopus
  20. M. Kappel, N. Tvede, H. Galbo et al., “Evidence that the effect of physical exercise on NK cell activity is mediated by epinephrine,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 2530–2534, 1991. View at Scopus
  21. R. J. Shephard and P. N. Shek, “Effects of exercise and training on natural killer cell counts and cytolytic activity: a meta-analysis,” Sports Medicine, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 177–195, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. G. Del Giacco and H. J. Malling, “Diversity of allergy and clinical immunology reunified by training at the EU level,” Allergy, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 575–576, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. K. Schroder, P. J. Hertzog, T. Ravasi, and D. A. Hume, “Interferon-γ: an overview of signals, mechanisms and functions,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 163–189, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. Akira, “The role of IL-18 in innate immunity,” Current Opinion in Immunology, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 59–63, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. L. Enoksson, E. K. Grasset, T. Hägglöf et al., “The inflammatory cytokine IL-18 induces self-reactive innate antibody responses regulated by natural killer T cells,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 108, no. 51, pp. 1399–1407, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. I. Airoldi, L. Raffaghello, C. Cocco et al., “Heterogeneous expression of interleukin-18 and its receptor in B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders deriving from naive, germinal center, and memory B lymphocytes,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 144–154, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. N. P. Kadoglou, D. Perrea, F. Iliadis, N. Angelopoulou, C. Liapis, and M. Alevizos, “Exercise reduces resistin and inflammatory cytokines in patients with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 719–721, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. G. Neumayr, O. Ludwiczek, H. Hoertnagl et al., “The impact of prolonged strenuous endurance exercise on interleukin 18 and interleukin 18 binding protein in recreational cyclists,” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 836–840, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Yamaoka-Tojo, T. Tojo, K. Wakaume et al., “Circulating interleukin-18: a specific biomarker for atherosclerosis-prone patients with metabolic syndrome,” Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 8, no. 1, article 3, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Trøseid, K. T. Lappegård, T. E. Mollnes, H. Arnesen, and I. Seljeflot, “The effect of exercise on serum levels of interleukin-18 and components of the metabolic syndrome,” Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 579–584, 2009.
  31. M. Trøseid, I. Seljeflot, and H. Arnesen, “The role of interleukin-18 in the metabolic syndrome,” Cardiovascular Diabetology, vol. 9, article 11, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. D. Schenk, T. Nozaki, M. Rabant, A. Valujskikh, and R. L. Fairchild, “Donor-reactive CD8 memory T cells infiltrate cardiac allografts within 24-h posttransplant in naive recipients,” The American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 1652–1661, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. Von Rossum, R. Krall, N. K. Escalante, and J. C. Choy, “Inflammatory cytokines determine the susceptibility of human CD8 T cells to Fas-mediated activation-induced cell death through modulation of FasL and c-FLIPS expression,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 286, no. 24, pp. 21137–21144, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. G. Perona-Wright, K. Mohrs, and M. Mohrs, “Sustained signaling by canonical helper T cell cytokines throughout the reactive lymph node,” Nature Immunology, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 520–526, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. M. W. Petersen and B. K. Pedersen, “The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 1154–1162, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar