Table 1: Comparison of characteristics between subjects in care level 1 or lower and those in care level 2.

Care level 1 to less
( , * )
Care level 2
( , * )
Statistics value

Age [yo] 0.97
Female195 (70.1%)113 (81.3%) 0.02
Living alone177 (63.7%)73 (52.5%) 0.03
Service use
 Home bath service0 (0%)0 (0%)
 Visiting nurse17 (6.1%)28 (20.1%) 0.00
 Home rehabilitation14 (5.0%)12 (8.6%) 0.20
 Nursing home daycare15 (5.4%)23 (16.5%) <0.01
 Health daycare99 (35.6%)64 (46.0%) 0.04
 Respite stay in a nursing home3 (1.1%)11 (7.9%) <0.01
Medical history
 Cancer57 (20.5%)27 (19.4%) 0.90
 Stroke27 (9.7%)32 (23.0%) <0.01
 Heart disease76 (27.3%)37 (26.6%) 0.91
 Fracture of lower leg52 (18.7%)31 (22.3%) 0.44
 Compression fracture of the spine33 (11.9%)21 (15.1%) 0.36
 Rheumatoid arthritis12 (4.3%)7 (5.0%) 0.81
BMI [kg/m2] 0.24
Grip strength [kg] <0.01
CC [cm] <0.01
Memory impairment (MIS score ≦ 4)68 (24.5%)41 (29.5%) 0.29
PMADL-8* <0.01
Participation scale* <0.01
Social support scale* 0.62

BMI: body mass index; CC: calf circumference; MIS: memory impairment screen; PMADL-8: performance measure for activities of daily living 8. Values are mean ± SD or (%).
The number of subjects for questionnaires including PMADL-8, Participation scale, and Social support scale.