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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 392058, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/392058
Research Article

In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Chlorogenic Acid against Clinical Isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia including the Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Resistant Strain

1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor 43400 Serdang, Malaysia
2La Balme Microbiology Unit, BioMérieux, 3 route de Port Michaud, 38390 La Balme-les-Grottes, France

Received 7 August 2012; Revised 19 September 2012; Accepted 3 October 2012

Academic Editor: Isabel Sá-Correia

Copyright © 2013 Arunkumar Karunanidhi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of chlorogenic acid against clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was investigated through disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), time-kill and biofilm assays. A total of 9 clinical S. maltophilia isolates including one isolate resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) were tested. The inhibition zone sizes for the isolates ranged from 17 to 29 mm, while the MIC and MBC values ranged from 8 to 16 μg mL−1 and 16 to 32 μg mL−1. Chlorogenic acid appeared to be strongly bactericidal at 4x MIC, with a 2-log reduction in viable bacteria at 10 h. In vitro antibiofilm testing showed a 4-fold reduction in biofilm viability at 4x MIC compared to 1x MIC values ( A 490 nm) of chlorogenic acid. The data from this study support the notion that the chlorogenic acid has promising in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against S. maltophilia.