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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 396541, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/396541
Review Article

Vitamin D and Bone Disease

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Democritus University of Thrace, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Dragana, 68100 Alexandroupolis, Greece

Received 6 July 2012; Accepted 29 August 2012

Academic Editor: Qing H. Meng

Copyright © 2013 S. Christodoulou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Vitamin D is important for normal development and maintenance of the skeleton. Hypovitaminosis D adversely affects calcium metabolism, osteoblastic activity, matrix ossification, bone remodeling and bone density. It is well known that Vit. D deficiency in the developing skeleton is related to rickets, while in adults is related to osteomalacia. The causes of rickets include conditions that lead to hypocalcemia and/or hypophosphatemia, either isolated or secondary to vitamin D deficiency. In osteomalacia, Vit. D deficiency leads to impairment of the mineralisation phase of bone remodeling and thus an increasing amount of the skeleton being replaced by unmineralized osteoid. The relationship between Vit. D and bone mineral density and osteoporosis are still controversial while new evidence suggests that Vit. D may play a role in other bone conditions such as osteoarthritis and stress fractures. In order to maintain a “good bone health” guidelines concerning the recommended dietary intakes should be followed and screening for Vit. D deficiency in individuals at risk for deficiency is required, followed by the appropriate action.