About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 396541, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/396541
Review Article

Vitamin D and Bone Disease

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Democritus University of Thrace, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Dragana, 68100 Alexandroupolis, Greece

Received 6 July 2012; Accepted 29 August 2012

Academic Editor: Qing H. Meng

Copyright © 2013 S. Christodoulou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. F. Holick, “Vitamin D deficiency,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 357, no. 3, pp. 266–268, 2007.
  2. M. F. Holick, T. C. Chen, Z. Lu, and E. Sauter, “Vitamin D and skin physiology: a D-lightful story,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. V28–V33, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. von Domarus, J. Brown, F. Barvencik, M. Amling, and P. Pogoda, “How much Vitamin D do we need for skeletal health?” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, vol. 469, no. 11, pp. 3127–3133, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. O. Kuchuk, N. M. Van Schoor, S. M. Pluijm, A. Chines, and P. Lips, “Vitamin D status, parathyroid function, bone turnover, and BMD in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: global perspective,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 693–701, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Audran and K. Briot, “Critical reappraisal of vitamin D deficiency,” Joint Bone Spine, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 115–119, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. P. Heaney, “Vitamin D endocrine physiology,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 22, supplement 2, pp. V25–V27, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. G. Need, P. D. O'Loughlin, H. A. Morris, P. S. Coates, M. Horowitz, and B. E. C. Nordin, “Vitamin D metabolites and calcium absorption in severe vitamin D deficiency,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 1859–1863, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Janet Barger-Lux and R. P. Heaney, “Effects of above average summer sun exposure on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium absorption,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 87, no. 11, pp. 4952–4956, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. P. Heaney, M. S. Dowell, C. A. Hale, and A. Bendich, “Calcium absorption varies within the reference range for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 142–146, 2003. View at Scopus
  10. D. L. Kendler, G. M. Kiebzak, C. G. Ambrose et al., “Effect of calcium tablets on interpretation of lumbar spine DXA scans,” Journal of Clinical Densitometry, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 97–104, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. J. Pitt, “Rickets and osteomalacia are still around,” Radiologic Clinics of North America, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 97–118, 1991. View at Scopus
  12. F. Rauch, “The rachitic bone,” Endocrine Development, vol. 6, pp. 69–79, 2003. View at Scopus
  13. M. Sahay and R. Sahay, “Vitamin D deficiency and dependency,” Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 164–176, 2012.
  14. J. M. Pettifor, “Vitamin D and/or calcium deficiency rickets in infants and children: a concern for developing countries?” Indian Pediatrics, vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 893–895, 2007. View at Scopus
  15. M. C. DeLucia, M. E. Mitnick, and T. O. Carpenter, “Nutritional rickets with normal circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a call for reexamining the role of dietary calcium intake in North American infants,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 88, no. 8, pp. 3539–3545, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. G. Dunnigan and J. B. Henderson, “An epidemiological model of privational rickets and osteomalacia,” Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 939–956, 1997. View at Scopus
  17. E. B. Mawer and M. Davies, “Vitamin D nutrition and bone disease in adults,” Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 153–164, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. M. Parfitt, Vitamin D and the Pathogenesis of Rickets and Osteomalacia, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 1997.
  19. R. G. Long, E. Meinhard, and R. K. Skinner, “Clinical, biochemical, and histological studies of osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and parathyroid function in chronic liver disease,” Gut, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 85–90, 1978. View at Scopus
  20. D. T. Villareal, R. Civitelli, A. Chines, and L. V. Avioli, “Subclinical vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal women with low vertebral bone mass,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 628–634, 1991. View at Scopus
  21. P. Lips, D. Hosking, K. Lippuner et al., “The prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy amongst women with osteoporosis: an international epidemiological investigation,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 260, no. 3, pp. 245–254, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. H. A. Bischoff-Ferrari, T. Dietrich, E. J. Orav, and B. Dawson-Hughes, “Positive association between 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels and bone mineral density: a population-based study of younger and older adults,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 116, no. 9, pp. 634–639, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Adami, F. Bertoldo, V. Braga et al., “25-hydroxy vitamin D levels in healthy premenopausal women: association with bone turnover markers and bone mineral density,” Bone, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 423–426, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. F. Hosseinpanah, M. Rambod, A. Hossein-Nejad, B. Larijani, and F. Azizi, “Association between vitamin D and bone mineral density in Iranian postmenopausal women,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 86–92, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. K. S. Tsai, S. H. J. Hsu, J. P. Cheng, and R. S. Yang, “Vitamin D stores of urban women in Taipei: effect on bone density and bone turnover, and seasonal variation,” Bone, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 371–374, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. Sigurdsson, L. Franzson, L. Steingrimsdottir, and H. Sigvaldason, “The association between parathyroid hormone, vitamin D and bone mineral density in 70-year-old icelandic women,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 1031–1035, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. K. Briot, M. Audran, B. Cortet et al., “Vitamin D: skeletal and extra skeletal effects; recommendations for good practice,” Presse Medicale, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 43–54, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. B. M. Tang, G. D. Eslick, C. Nowson, C. Smith, and A. Bensoussan, “Use of calcium or calcium in combination with vitamin D supplementation to prevent fractures and bone loss in people aged 50 years and older: a meta-analysis,” The Lancet, vol. 370, no. 9588, pp. 657–666, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. M. Francis, “Non-response to osteoporosis treatment,” Journal of the British Menopause Society, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 76–80, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Bonnick, S. Broy, F. Kaiser et al., “Treatment with alendronate plus calcium, alendronate alone, or calcium alone for postmenopausal low bone mineral density,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1341–1349, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Díez-Pérez and J. González-Macías, “Inadequate responders to osteoporosis treatment: proposal for an operational definition,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1511–1516, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. C. Ross, J. E. Manson, S. A. Abrams et al., “The 2011 report on dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine: what clinicians need to know,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 53–58, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. S. Carmel, A. Shieh, H. Bang, and R. S. Bockman, “The 25(OH)D level needed to maintain a favorable bisphosphonate response is ≥33 ng/ml,” Osteoporosis International. In press.
  34. P. Peris, A. Martínez-Ferrer, A. Monegal, M. J. Martínez de Osaba, A. Muxi, and N. Guañabens, “25 hydroxyvitamin D serum levels influence adequate response to bisphosphonate treatment in postmenopausal osteoporosis,” Bone, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 54–58, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. C. J. Rosen, “Vitamin D insufficiency,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 364, pp. 248–254, 2011.
  36. S. A. Stechschulte, R. S. Kirsner, and D. G. Federman, “Vitamin D: bone and beyond, rationale and recommendations for supplementation,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 122, no. 9, pp. 793–802, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. H. Bischoff-Ferrari, “Vitamin D: what is an adequate vitamin D level and how much supplementation is necessary?” Best Practice and Research, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 789–795, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. D. Jackson, A. Z. LaCroix, and M. Gass, “Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 354, no. 7, pp. 669–683, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. E. R. Yendt, K. A. Kovacs, and G. Jones, “Secondary hyperparathyroidism in primary osteoporosis and osteopenia: optimizing calcium and vitamin D intakes to levels recommended by expert panels may not be sufficient for correction,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 855–863, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. U. Givon, E. Friedman, A. Reiner, I. Vered, A. Finestone, and J. Shemer, “Stress fractures in the Israeli Defense Forces from 1995 to 1996,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, no. 373, pp. 227–232, 2000. View at Scopus
  41. V. V. Välimäki, H. Alfthan, E. Lehmuskallio et al., “Risk factors for clinical stress fractures in male military recruits: a prospective cohort study,” Bone, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 267–273, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. P. Ruohola, I. Laaksi, T. Ylikomi et al., “Association between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and bone stress fractures in Finnish young men,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1483–1488, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. N. Chatzipapas, G. I. Drosos, K. I. Kazakos, G. Tripslanis, C. Iatrou, and D. A. J. Verettas, “Stress fractures in military men and bone quality related factors,” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 922–926, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. D. S. Moran, Y. Heled, Y. Arbel et al., “Dietary intake and stress fractures among elite male combat recruits,” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, vol. 9, article 6, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. C. Chatzipapas, S. Boikos, G. I. Drosos et al., “Polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor gene and stress fractures,” Hormone and Metabolic Research, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 635–640, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. Samuels, S. Krasnokutsky, and S. B. Abramson, “Osteoarthritis: a tale of three tissues,” Bulletin of the NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 244–250, 2008. View at Scopus
  47. S. Kwan Tat, D. Lajeunesse, J. P. Pelletier, and J. Martel-Pelletier, “Targeting subchondral bone for treating osteoarthritis: what is the evidence?” Best Practice and Research, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 51–70, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. S. Adams and M. Hewison, “Update in vitamin D,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 471–478, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. B. Heidari, J. S. Shirvani, A. Firouzjahi, P. Heidari, and K. O. Hajian-Tilaki, “Association between nonspecific skeletal pain and vitamin D deficiency,” International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 340–346, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. K. F. Al-Jarallah, D. Shehab, A. Al-Awadhi, I. Nahar, M. Z. Haider, and M. A. Moussa, “Are 25(OH)D levels related to the severity of knee osteoarthritis and function?” Medical Principles and Practice, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 74–78, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. D. T. Felson, J. Niu, M. Clancy et al., “Low levels of vitamin D and worsening of knee osteoarthritis: results of two longitudinal studies,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 129–136, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. T. J. Mäkinen, J. J. Alm, H. Laine, E. Svedström, and H. T. Aro, “The incidence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in women with hip osteoarthritis scheduled for cementless total joint replacement,” Bone, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 1041–1047, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. H. A. Bischoff-Ferrari, W. C. Willett, J. B. Wong, E. Giovannucci, T. Dietrich, and B. Dawson-Hughes, “Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” JAMA, vol. 293, no. 18, pp. 2257–2264, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. P. Bergink, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. P. T. M. Van Leeuwen et al., “Vitamin D status, bone mineral density, and the development of radiographic osteoarthritis of the knee: the Rotterdam study,” Journal of Clinical Rheumatology, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 230–237, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. Endocrine Society Practice Guidelines JCEM, 2011, http://www.endo-society.org/guidelines/final/upload/FINAL-Standalone-Vitamin-D-Guideline.pdf.