Table 2: Taxonomy homologues proteins of biomineralization.

Taxonomy of viruses and organismsAge (billions of years) POB
1234

Mimiviridae, Herpesviridae, Baculoviridae and so forth (vira**)Fossils are not found [19]++
Bacilli, Gammaproteobacteria and so forth (bacteria)3.8–3.5* [19]+
Dictyosteliomycota+++
Lobosea0.75 [20]+
Heterolobosea+
Kinetoplastida0.099–0.093 [21]+
Conoidasida+
Aconoidasida+
Oligohymenophorea+
Demospongiae 0.542–0.516 [21]++
Tricoplacia+++
Hydrozoa0.635–0.542 [21]++
Anthozoa0.635–0.542 [21]+
Holothuroidea0.513–0.505 [21]+
Chromadorea++++
Bdelloidea+
Branchiopoda0.520–0.516 [21]+++
Monogenea+
Polychaeta 0.520–0.516 [21]+
Gastropoda, Bivalvia0.542–0.252 [21]++
Arachnida0.418–0.416 [21]+
Insecta0.412–0.391 [21]+++
Malacostraca0.530–0.513 [21]+
Maxillopoda0.268–0.265 [21]++
Appendicularia+++
Leptocardii0.541–0.485 [21]+
Actinopterygii0.478–0.468 [21]+++
Amphibia0.488–0.443 [21]+++
Aves0.252–0.201 [21]+++
Mammalia0.235–0.221 [21]++++
Homo sapiens***0.005 [21]+++
Eurotiomycetes, Homobasidiomycetes and so forth (fungi)0.048–0.46 [21]++
Phaeophyceae, Mamiellophyceae and so forth0.485–0.150 [21]++
Liliopsida0.122–0.112 [21]++
Magnoliopsida 0.388–0.383 [21]+

Note: 1: silaffins; 2: silacidins; 3: silicateins; 4: silicase; +: homologue present; **(classification ICTV); ***(human is presented as a species as an exception). *3.5 authentic finding in siliceous rocks, 3.8 problematic.