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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 405083, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/405083
Research Article

Epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis in a Reemerging Focus of Intense Transmission in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

1Universidade Federal dos Vales dos Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Diamantina, MG, Brazil
2HSA Gestão e Projeto Ambiental Ltda, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
3Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou/FIOCRUZ, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
4Secretaria Municipal de Saúde, Governador Valadares, MG, Brazil

Received 15 April 2013; Revised 17 June 2013; Accepted 15 July 2013

Academic Editor: Milton Ozório Moraes

Copyright © 2013 Ricardo Andrade Barata et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This study was developed in the urban area of Governador Valadares, a reemerging focus of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, presenting 86 human cases of VL from 2008 to 2011. The disease prevailed in males (73.2%) with most patients between 0 and 9 years (44.1%) and a lethality rate of 16.2%. A canine survey was carried out on 16,529 domestic dogs in 35 districts in the area and it showed that 30.2% of them (4,992 dogs) were positive for VL by serum assays. Prevalence ratios for canine VL varied between 13.6% and 53.4%. The clinical exam of 343 seropositive dogs showed that 49.9% of them were considered symptomatic, with larger prevalence of canine VL being in short-furred animals (90%). The entomological survey was performed in eight districts, where 2,539 phlebotomines were captured, preferentially in the peridomicile (84.5%). Lutzomyia longipalpis was the predominant species (90%) suggesting its participation in the VL transmission in the area. The correlation between canine prevalence and L. longipalpis density was evaluated.