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Figure 3: Comparison of the biological features of prostate cancer with (PSA+, PSMA+) profile according to RKIP. Among (PSA+, PSMA+) profile, loss of RKIP leads to upregulation of Raf-1/ERK and NF-κB pathways which subsequently stimulate PSA and PSMA expression, whereas Akt is activated independently to RKIP. According to RKIP, PC patients with (PSA+, PSMA+) profile could exhibit the feature of two different PC phenotypes: an androgen-dependent phenotype for PC patients keeping the RKIP and an androgen-independent phenotype for those missing the RKIP.