Hypertension about 28 and 27, metabolic syndrome about 29 and 29, and coronary artery disease about 0 and 1 in the groups gastric banding and medication, respectively.
Age 20–60, BMI 30–40 kg/m2, diagnosed type 2 diabetes within the previous 2 years, and no renal impairment or diabetic retinopathy.
Type 1 diabetes, diabetes secondary to a specific disease, a history of bariatric surgery, mental impairment, drug or alcohol addiction, recent major vascular event, internal malignancy, portal hypertension, and contraindication.
Primary: remission (FBG 126 mg/dL, HbA1c 6.2%, and without the use of oral hypoglycemics or insulin). Secondary: HbA1c, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting lipids, insulin resistance, adverse events, and changes in medications.
Age 30–60, BMI 35 kg/m2, a history of type 2 diabetes of at least 5 years (HbA1c 7.0%), and an ability to understand and comply with the study protocol.
Type 1 diabetes, diabetes secondary to a specific disease or glucocorticoid therapy, previous bariatric surgery, pregnancy, other medical conditions requiring short-term hospitalization, severe diabetes complications, other severe medical conditions, and geographic inaccessibility.
Primary: remission (FBG 100 mg/dL, HbA1c 6.5%, and at least 1 year without active pharmacologic therapy). Secondary: FBG, glycated hemoglobin, body weight, waist circumference, arterial blood pressure, plasma cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides.
HbA1c: hemoglobin A1c; BMI: body-mass index. FBG: fasting blood glucose; CRP: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; HOMA-IR: the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; HDL: high-density lipoprotein.