Table 4: Summary of the effect of meta-analysis.

OutcomesComparisonEffect estimate
valueMD/SMD/RR95% CI

Glycated hemoglobinGastric bypassMedical
therapy
0.00001−0.97−1.34, −0.60
Gastric banding 0.0001−1.13−1.68, −0.58
Gastrectomy 0.0001−0.89−1.32, −0.46
Biliopancreatic
diversion
0.00001−3.46−4.52, −2.41

Fasting plasma glucoseGastric bypassMedical
therapy
0.004−23.44−39.59, −7.29
Gastric banding0.001−32.80−52.76, 12.84
Biliopancreatic diversion 0.00001−41.86−48.98, −34.74

Remission of diabetesBariatric surgeryMedical
therapy
0.029.761.36, 69.66

Subjects with no diabetes medicinesGastric bypassMedical
therapy
0.003633.99, 995.29
Gastric banding0.000262.37, 15.20
Gastrectomy0.00940.352.53, 643.98

Serious adverse events Bariatric surgeryMedical
therapy
0.341.230.80, 1.87

Body weightGastric bypassMedical
therapy
0.00001−26.02−30.47, −21.58
Gastric banding 0.00001−19.60−23.83, −15.37
Gastrectomy 0.00001−19.70−23.11, −16.29
Biliopancreatic
diversion
0.00001−29.08−34.52, −23.64

Waist circumferenceGastric bypassMedical
therapy
0.00001−15.11−17.65, −12.58
Gastric banding 0.00001−13.90−18.95, −8.85
Gastrectomy 0.00001−13.90−16.91, −10.89
Biliopancreatic
diversion
0.00001−13.01−16.07, −12.65

High-density lipoprotein
Gastric bypassMedical
therapy
0.0000120.8914.31, 27.47
Gastric banding 0.0000110.005.87, 14.13
Gastrectomy0.00817.107.13, 27.07
Biliopancreatic
diversion
0.166.95−2.78, 16.68

TriglyceridesGastric bypassMedical
therapy
0.77−2.89−22.00, 16.22
Gastric banding0.01−69.60−124.07, −15.13
Biliopancreatic
diversion
0.00001−38.51−41.09, −25.96

Systolic blood pressureGastric bypassMedical
therapy
0.461.82−3.00, 6.64
Gastric banding0.30−4.30−12.48, 3.88
Gastrectomy0.72−1.20−7.75, 5.35
Biliopancreatic
diversion
0.41−3.40−11.57, 4.77

Cholesterol total
Gastric bypassMedical
therapy
0.370.16−0.19, 0.51
Gastric banding0.720.09−0.41, 0.60
Gastrectomy0.370.19−0.22, 0.60
Biliopancreatic
diversion
0.00001−2.75 −3.67, −1.82

SMD (standardized mean difference) was used when continuous outcomes was the same scale; MD (mean difference) was recommended when continuous outcomes was different scale; RR (risk ratio) was applied for dichotomous outcomes; CI (confidence interval).