- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 419176, 9 pages
Progress of Molecular Targeted Therapies for Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma
1Department of Clinical and Specialist Sciences, Urology, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, AOU Ospedali Riuniti Umberto I-GM Lancisi and G Salesi, Ancona, Italy
2Medical Oncology, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, AOU Ospedali Riuniti Umberto I-GM Lancisi and G Salesi, Ancona, Italy
3School of Pharmacy, Section of Experimental Medicine, University of Camerino, Italy
Received 30 April 2013; Revised 13 July 2013; Accepted 3 August 2013
Academic Editor: Jeanny B. Aragon-Ching
Copyright © 2013 Alessandro Conti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- M. Zimmer, D. Doucette, N. Siddiqui, and O. Iliopoulos, “Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor is sufficient for growth suppression of VHL tumors,” Molecular Cancer Research, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 89–95, 2004.
- B. I. Rini and E. J. Small, “Biology and clinical development of vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapy in renal cell carcinoma,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 1028–1043, 2005.
- G. L. Semenza, “Targeting HIF-1 for cancer therapy,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 721–732, 2003.
- K. Podar and K. C. Anderson, “A therapeutic role for targeting c-Myc/Hif-1-dependent signaling pathways,” Cell Cycle, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 1722–1728, 2010.
- J. Holash, P. C. Maisonpierre, D. Compton et al., “Vessel cooption, regression, and growth in tumors mediated by angiopoietins and VEGF,” Science, vol. 284, no. 5422, pp. 1994–1998, 1999.
- B. Hemmerlein, A. Kugler, R. Özisik, R.-H. Ringert, H.-J. Radzun, and P. Thelen, “Vascular endothelial growth factor expression, angiogenesis, and necrosis in renal cell carcinomas,” Virchows Archiv, vol. 439, no. 5, pp. 645–652, 2001.
- N. Tsuchiya, K. Sato, T. Akao et al., “Quantitative analysis of gene expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor-related factors and their receptors in renal cell carcinoma,” Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 195, no. 2, pp. 101–113, 2001.
- G. Bergers and L. E. Benjamin, “Tumorigenesis and the angiogenic switch,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 401–410, 2003.
- X. Na, G. Wu, C. K. Ryan, S. R. Schoen, P. A. Di'Santagnese, and E. M. Messing, “Overproduction of vascular endothelial growth factor related to von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene mutations and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression in renal cell carcinomas,” Journal of Urology, vol. 170, no. 2 I, pp. 588–592, 2003.
- N. S. Levy, S. Chung, H. Furneaux, and A. P. Levy, “Hypoxic stabilization of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA by the RNA-binding protein HuR,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 273, no. 11, pp. 6417–6423, 1998.
- L. Vroling, A. A. M. Van Der Veldt, R. R. De Haas et al., “Increased numbers of small circulating endothelial cells in renal cell cancer patients treated with sunitinib,” Angiogenesis, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 69–79, 2009.
- S. M. Bauer, R. J. Bauer, and O. C. Velazquez, “Angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, and induction of healing in chronic wounds,” Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 293–306, 2005.
- H. Bompais, J. Chagraoui, X. Canron et al., “Human endothelial cells derived from circulating progenitors display specific functional properties compared with mature vessel wall endothelial cells,” Blood, vol. 103, no. 7, pp. 2577–2584, 2004.
- S. Bruno, B. Bussolati, C. Grange et al., “CD133+ renal progenitor cells contribute to tumor angiogenesis,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 169, no. 6, pp. 2223–2235, 2006.
- S. Rafii, S. Avecilla, S. Shmelkov et al., “Angiogenic factors reconstitute hematopoiesis by recruiting stem cells from bone marrow microenvironment,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 996, pp. 49–60, 2003.
- D. J. Ceradini, A. R. Kulkarni, M. J. Callaghan et al., “Progenitor cell trafficking is regulated by hypoxic gradients through HIF-1 induction of SDF-1,” Nature Medicine, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 858–864, 2004.
- R. N. Kaplan, R. D. Riba, S. Zacharoulis et al., “VEGFR1-positive haematopoietic bone marrow progenitors initiate the pre-metastatic niche,” Nature, vol. 438, no. 7069, pp. 820–827, 2005.
- T. Powles, S. Chowdhury, J. Shamash et al., “Increased haematopoietic progenitor cells are associated with poor outcome in patients with metastatic renal cancer treated with sunitinib,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 815–820, 2011.
- L. H. Parker, M. Schmidt, S.-W. Jin et al., “The endothelial-cell-derived secreted factor Egfl7 regulates vascular tube formation,” Nature, vol. 428, no. 6984, pp. 754–758, 2004.
- C. Betsholtz, P. Lindblom, and H. Gerhardt, “Role of pericytes in vascular morphogenesis,” EXS, no. 94, pp. 115–125, 2005.
- V. A. Carroll and M. Ashcroft, “Regulation of angiogenic factors by HDM2 in renal cell carcinoma,” Cancer Research, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 545–552, 2008.
- M. Santoni, M. Rizzo, L. Burattini, R. Berardi, G. Carteni, and S. Cascinu, “Novel agents, combinations and sequences for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma: when is the revolution coming?” Current Cancer Drug Targets, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 313–325, 2013.
- B. I. Rini, G. Wilding, G. Hudes et al., “Phase II study of axitinib in sorafenib-refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 27, no. 27, pp. 4462–4468, 2009.
- O. Rixe, R. M. Bukowski, M. D. Michaelson et al., “Axitinib treatment in patients with cytokine-refractory metastatic renal-cell cancer: a phase II study,” Lancet Oncology, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 975–984, 2007.
- B. I. Rini, B. Escudier, P. Tomczak et al., “Comparative effectiveness of axitinib versus sorafenib in advanced renal cell carcinoma (AXIS): a randomised phase 3 trial,” The Lancet, vol. 378, no. 9807, pp. 1931–1939, 2011.
- B. I. Rini, V. Grünwald, M. N. Fishman, et al., “Axitinib for first-line metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC): overall efficacy and pharmacokinetic analyses from a randomized phase II study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology. In press.
- P. Bhargava, B. Esteves, D. A. Nosov, O. N. Lipatov, A. A. Lyulko, A. A. Anischenko, et al., “Updated activity and safety results of a phase II randomized discontinuation trial (RDT) of AV-951, a potent and selective VEGFR1, 2, and 3 kinase inhibitor, in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC),” Journal of Clinical Oncology. In press.
- R. J. Motzer, D. Nosov, T. Eisen, I. N. Bondarenko, V. Lesovoy, O. N. Lipatov, et al., “Tivozanib versus sorafenib as initial targeted therapy for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma: results from a phase III randomized,” Journal of Clinical Oncology. In press.
- http://www.fda.gov/downloads/AdvisoryCommittees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/Drugs/Oncologic DrugsAdvisoryCommittee/UCM350075.pdf.
- E. Angevin, V. Grünwald, A. Ravaud, D. E. Castellano, C. C. Lin, J. E. Gschwend, et al., “A phase II study of dovitinib (TKI258), an FGFR- and VEGFR-inhibitor, in patients with advanced or metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC),” Journal of Clinical Oncology. In press.
- J. C. Welti, M. Gourlaouen, T. Powles et al., “Fibroblast growth factor 2 regulates endothelial cell sensitivity to sunitinib,” Oncogene, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 1183–1193, 2011.
- P. Mulders, R. Hawkins, P. Nathan et al., “Cediranib monotherapy in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma: results of a randomised phase II study,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 527–537, 2012.
- N. M. Tannir, Y.-N. Wong, C. K. Kollmannsberger et al., “Phase 2 trial of linifanib (ABT-869) in patients with advanced renal cell cancer after sunitinib failure,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 47, no. 18, pp. 2706–2714, 2011.
- T. Eisen, H. Joensuu, P. D. Nathan, P. G. Harper, M. Z. Wojtukiewicz, S. Nicholson, et al., “Regorafenib for patients with previously untreated metastatic or unresectable renal-cell carcinoma:a single-group phase 2 trial,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 1055–1062, 2012.
- M. Jermann, R. A. Stahel, M. Salzberg et al., “A phase II, open-label study of gefitinib (IRESSA) in patients with locally advanced, metastatic, or relapsed renal-cell carcinoma,” Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 533–539, 2006.
- D. Shek, J. Longmate, D. I. Quinn et al., “A phase II trial of gefitinib and pegylated IFNα in previously treated renal cell carcinoma,” International Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 494–499, 2011.
- D. R. Shepard, M. M. Cooney, P. Elson et al., “A phase II study of tandutinib (MLN518), a selective inhibitor of type III tyrosine receptor kinases, in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma,” Investigational New Drugs, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 364–367, 2012.
- H. M. W. Verheul, H. Hammers, K. Van Erp et al., “Vascular endothelial growth factor trap blocks tumor growth, metastasis formation, and vascular leakage in an orthotopic murine renal cell cancer model,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 13, no. 14, pp. 4201–4208, 2007.
- W. P. Tew, M. Gordon, J. Murren et al., “Phase 1 study of aflibercept administered subcutaneously to patients with advanced solid tumors,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 358–366, 2010.
- M. Mita, E. Rowinsky, A. Mita, S. Syed, Q. Chu, M. Goldston, et al., “Phase 1, pharmacokinetic (PK), and pharmacodynamic (PD) study of AP23573, an mTOR Inhibitor, administered IV daily X 5 every other week in patients (patients) with refractory or advanced malignancies,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 22, no. 14, p. 3076, 2004.
- C. M. Chresta, B. R. Davies, I. Hickson et al., “AZD8055 is a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable ATP-competitive mammalian target of rapamycin kinase inhibitor with in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity,” Cancer Research, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 288–298, 2010.
- D. C. Cho, T. E. Hutson, W. Samlowski, P. Sportelli, B. Somer, P. Richards, et al., “Two phase 2 trials of the novel Akt inhibitor perifosine in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma after progression on vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapy,” Cancer, vol. 118, pp. 6055–6062, 2012.
- D. C. Cho, M. B. Cohen, D. J. Panka et al., “The efficacy of the novel dual PI3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 compared with rapamycin in renal cell carcinoma,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 16, no. 14, pp. 3628–3638, 2010.
- D. Roulin, L. Waselle, A. Dormond-Meuwly, M. Dufour, N. Demartines, and O. Dormond, “Targeting renal cell carcinoma with NVP-BEZ235, a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, in combination with sorafenib,” Molecular Cancer, vol. 10, article 90, 2011.
- B. Rini, C. Szczylik, N. M. Tannir, P. Koralewski, P. Tomczak, A. Deptala, et al., “AMG 386 in combination with sorafenib in patients with metastatic clear cell carcinoma of the kidney: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 study,” Cancer, vol. 118, pp. 6152–6161, 2012.
- M. B. Atkins, A. Ravaud, G. Gravis, K. Drosik, T. Demkow, P. Tomczak, et al., “Safety and efficacy of AMG 386 in combination with sunitinib in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in an open-label multicenter phase II study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology. In press.
- V. Ramakrishnan, V. Bhaskar, D. A. Law et al., “Preclinical evaluation of an anti-α5β1 integrin antibody as a novel anti-angiogenic agent,” Journal of Experimental Therapeutics and Oncology, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 273–286, 2006.
- S. Yazji, R. M. Bukowksi, V. Kondagunta, and R. Figlin, “Final results from phase II study of volociximab, an a5B1 anti-integrin antibody, in refractory or relapsed metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mCCRCC),” Journal of Clinical Oncology. In press.
- C.-L. Law, K. A. Gordon, B. E. Toki et al., “Lymphocyte activation antigen CD70 expressed by renal cell carcinoma is a potential therapeutic target for anti-CD70 antibody-drug conjugates,” Cancer Research, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 2328–2337, 2006.
- E. Oosterwijk, D. J. Ruiter, and J. Hoedemaeker Ph., “Monoclonal antibody G 250 recognizes a determinant present in renal-cell carcinoma and absent from normal kidney,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 489–494, 1986.
- Z. Liu, F. E. Smyth, C. Renner, F.-T. Lee, E. Oosterwijk, and A. M. Scott, “Anti-renal cell carcinoma chimeric antibody G250: cytokine enhancement of in vitro antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity,” Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 171–177, 2002.
- Y. Shao, Z. Gao, P. A. Marks, and X. Jiang, “Apoptotic and autophagic cell death induced by histone deacetylase inhibitors,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 52, pp. 18030–18035, 2004.
- P. Rocchi, R. Tonelli, C. Camerin et al., “p21Waf1/Cip1 is a common target induced by short-chain fatty acid HDAC inhibitors (valproic acid, tributyrin and sodium butyrate) in neuroblastoma cells,” Oncology Reports, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1139–1144, 2005.
- H. Wang, W. Zhou, Z. Zheng et al., “The HDAC inhibitor depsipeptide transactivates the p53/p21 pathway by inducing DNA damage,” DNA Repair, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 146–156, 2012.
- J. D. Hainsworth, J. R. Infante, D. R. Spigel, E. R. Arrowsmith, R. V. Boccia, and H. A. Burris, “A phase II trial of panobinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, in the treatment of patients with refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma,” Cancer Investigation, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 451–455, 2011.
- G. Niu, K. L. Wright, M. Huang et al., “Constitutive Stat3 activity up-regulates VEGF expression and tumor angiogenesis,” Oncogene, vol. 21, no. 13, pp. 2000–2008, 2002.
- A. Horiguchi, T. Asano, K. Kuroda et al., “STAT3 inhibitor WP1066 as a novel therapeutic agent for renal cell carcinoma,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 102, no. 11, pp. 1592–1599, 2010.
- C. R. Ireson and L. R. Kelland, “Discovery and development of anticancer aptamers,” Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 2957–2962, 2006.
- H. Ginisty, H. Sicard, B. Roger, and P. Bouvet, “Structure and functions of nucleolin,” Journal of Cell Science, vol. 112, no. 6, pp. 761–772, 1999.
- S. Soundararajan, W. Chen, E. K. Spicer, N. Courtenay-Luck, and D. J. Fernandes, “The nucleolin targeting aptamer AS1411 destabilizes Bcl-2 messenger RNA in human breast cancer cells,” Cancer Research, vol. 68, no. 7, pp. 2358–2365, 2008.