Table 1: Descriptive statistics of stethoscopes, computer keyboards, and telephone handsets at H and H : number and percentage of positive samples, overall CFUs counts and percentage reduction in CFUs from H to H , means, standard deviations, medians, interquartile ranges (IQR), minima, and maxima.

ObjectCulture medium*TimePositive sample (%)CFU total countb% reductionMeana (SD)Mediana (IQR)MinaMax

Stethoscopes ( )TBC 36H(0)20 (57.1)3368−99.97168.4 (304.7)19 (7.5 to 188)11110
H(1)1 (2.9)11 (—)1 (1)11
TBC 22H(0)22 (62.9)3678−100167.2 (367)9.5 (5 to 55)11508
H(1)0 (0)0— (—)— (—)
E. coli H(0)5 (14.3)123−10024.6 (30)11 (3 to 37)171
H(1)0 (0)0— (—)— (—)
Coliforms H(0)15 (42.9)1009−10067.2 (120)6 (3 to 62)1361
H(1)0 (0)0— (—)— (—)
Enterococci H(0)4 (11.4)14−1003.5 (4.4)1.5 (1 to 6)110
H(1)0 (0)0— (—)— (—)
Staphylococci H(0)21 (60)2605−100124.1 (270)10 (5 to 70)21003
H(1)0 (0)0— (—)— (—)
MRSAH(0)10 (28.6)130−10013 (16)5 (2 to 21)150
H(1)0 (0)0— (—)— (—)
MouldsH(0)2 (5.7)2−501 (—)1 (1)11
H(1)1 (2.9)11 (—)1 (1)11

Telephone handsets ( )TBC 36H(0)33 (89.2)645−99.2220 (30)11 (4 to 25)1156
H(1)3 (8.12)51.7 (0.6)2 (1 to 2)12
TBC 22H(0)33 (89.2)580−98.7918 (28.5)6 (2 to 22)1152
H(1)4 (10.8)71.8 (1.5)1 (1 to 2.5)14
E. coli H(0)1 (2.7)1−1001 (—)1 (1)11
H(1)0 (0)0— (—)— (—)
Coliforms H(0)22 (59.5)194−99.488.8 (7.8)8 (2 to 12)130
H(1)1 (2.7)11 (—)1 (1)11
Enterococci H(0)2 (5.4)2−1001 (—)1 (1)11
H(1)0 (0)0— (—)— (—)
Staphylococci H(0)31 (83.8)427−99.5313.8 (22.4)6 (2 to 14)199
H(1)2 (5.4)21 (—)1 (1)11
MRSAH(0)7 (18.9)23−1003.3 (2.8)3 (1 to 4)19
H(1)0 (0)0— (—)— (—)
MouldsH(0)6 (16.2)14−78.572.3 (2.4)1 (1 to 3)17
H(1)1 (2.7)33 (—)3 (3)33

Computer keyboards ( )TBC 36H(0)26 (96.3)512−99.4119.7 (16.6)14 (8 to 33)166
H(1)2 (7.4)31.5 (0.7)1.5 (1 to 2)12
TBC 22H(0)25 (92.6)557−96.7722.3 (15.2)21 (9 to 31)157
H(1)4 (14.8)184.5 (5.7)2 (1.5 to 7.5)113
E. coli H(0)11 (40.7)16−1001.5 (0.7)1 (1 to 2)13
H(1)0 (0)0— (—)— (—)
Coliforms H(0)21 (77.8)147−96.607 (6.5)5 (3 to 9)127
H(1)2 (7.4)52.5 (2.1)2.5 (1 to 4)14
Enterococci H(0)4 (14.8)4−1001 (—)1 (1)11
H(1)0 (0)0— (—)— (—)
Staphylococci H(0)25 (92.6)239−99.589.6 (9)5 (4 to 12)137
H(1)1 (3.7)11 (—)1 (1)11
MRSAH(0)6 (22.2)27−1004.5 (3)4.5 (2 to 6)19
H(1)0 (0)0— (—)— (—)
MouldsH(0)20 (74.1)137−99.276.9 (8)3.5 (1.5 to 9)129
H(1)1 (3.7)11 (1)1 (1)11

1 CFU of Acinetobacter was found only in one keyboard at H(0); TBC 36 and TBC 22, respectively, are total microbial load incubating at 36°C and 22°C; MRSA: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; aonly positive samples; bsumming all CFUs per stethoscopes, computer keyboards, and telephone handsets.