Table 2: Summary of the methods used to generate iPSCs.

MethodologyCell typeGenome integrationEfficiency of iPSC inductionReferences

Retroviral transductionFibroblast, neuronal, keratinocyte, blood cells, adipose, and liver cellsYesHighTakahashi et al., 2007 [26]/Lowry et al., 2008 [37]
Lentiviral transductionFibroblast and keratinocyteYesHighYu et al., 2007 [27]/Moore, 2013 [38]
Inducible lentiviral transductionFibroblast, melanocytes, beta-cells, blood cells, and keratinocyteYesHighMaherali et al., 2008 [39]
Adenoviral transductionFibroblastNoLowStadtfeld et al., 2008 [40]
Plasmid vectorFibroblastNoLowSi-Tayeb et al., 2010 [41]
Cell-free lysate or protein extractFibroblast and adipose stromal cellsNoLowKim et al., 2009 [42]
CellfusionFibroblasts and adult thymocytesNoLowCowan et al., 2005 [43]
Sendai viral transductionFibroblast and CD34+ cord blood cells/CD34+ cells from CML patient/
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells
NoHighBan et al., 2011 [49]/Kumano et al., 2012 [19]/Churko et al., 2013 [50]
Minicircle DNAAdipose stem cellsNoHighNarsinh et al., 2011 [51]
Episomal vectorsMononuclear bone marrow and cord blood cellsNoHighHu and Slukvin, 2013 [48]