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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 437613, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/437613
Review Article

Molecular Basis of Cardioprotective Effect of Antioxidant Vitamins in Myocardial Infarction

Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology Program, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Independencia 1027, Casilla 70058, Santiago 7, Chile

Received 30 April 2013; Accepted 18 June 2013

Academic Editor: Claiton Leonetti Lencina

Copyright © 2013 Ramón Rodrigo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Major advances in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes and myocardial infarction, using cardiologic interventions, such as thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary angioplasty (PCA) have improved the clinical outcome of patients. Nevertheless, as a consequence of these procedures, the ischemic zone is reperfused, giving rise to a lethal reperfusion event accompanied by increased production of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress). These reactive species attack biomolecules such as lipids, DNA, and proteins enhancing the previously established tissue damage, as well as triggering cell death pathways. Studies on animal models of AMI suggest that lethal reperfusion accounts for up to 50% of the final size of a myocardial infarct, a part of the damage likely to be prevented. Although a number of strategies have been aimed at to ameliorate lethal reperfusion injury, up to date the beneficial effects in clinical settings have been disappointing. The use of antioxidant vitamins could be a suitable strategy with this purpose. In this review, we propose a systematic approach to the molecular basis of the cardioprotective effect of antioxidant vitamins in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury that could offer a novel therapeutic opportunity against this oxidative tissue damage.