Table 5: Significant physical properties of several of the most common bioceramics used as biomaterials [70].

MaterialDensity (g/cm3)Tensile strength (MPa)Compressive strength (MPa)Modulus (GPa)Fracture toughness (MPa m1/2)Hardness (Knoop)Mass fraction α (ppm/°C)Fracture surface energy (J/m2)Poisson's ratioThermal conductivity (Wm−1K−1)

Hydroxyapatite3.140–300300–90080–1200.6–1.0400–4500112.3–200.28N/A
Tricalcium phosphate3.1440–120450–65090–1201.2N/A14-156.3–8.1N/AN/A
Bioglasses1.8–2.920–350800–120040–140~24000–50000–1414–500.21–0.241.5–3.6
Wollastonite glass ceramic3.0721510801182N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
SiO2 glass2.270–120N/A~700.7–0.87000–75000.63.5–4.60.171.5
Al2O33.85–3.99270–5003000–5000380–410 3–615000–200006–97.6–300.2730
Zirconia ceramics5.6–5.89500–6501850195–210 5–8~170009.8160–3500.274.11
Si3N43.18600–850500–2500300–3203.5–8.0~220003.220–1000.27 10–25
Silicon carbide3.10–3.21250–600~650350–450 3–6~270004.3–5.522–400.24100–150
Graphite1.5–2.255.6–2535–803.5–121.9–3.5N/A1–3~5000.3120–180
Multiceramics1.5–2.2200–700330–36025–40N/AN/A1–10N/A0.32.5–420
Carbon fiber1.5–1.8400–5000330–360200–700N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
Glassy carbon1.4–1.6150–250~69025–40N/A82002.2–3.2N/AN/AN/A