- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 459169, 7 pages
Role of Toll-Interacting Protein Gene Polymorphisms in Leprosy Mexican Patients
1Centro Universitario de Tonalá, Universidad de Guadalajara, Tonalá, Jal., Mexico
2Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jal., Mexico
3CIINDE Universidad de Guadalajara/Instituto Dermatológico de Jalisco “Dr. Jose Barba Rubio”, Sierra Mojada 950, Edificio P. Primer Nivel, Colonia Independencia, 44340 Guadalajara, Jal., Mexico
4Genetic Division Department, Biomedical Research Center West, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Sierra Mojada 800, Colonia Independencia, 44340 Guadalajara, Jal., Mexico
Received 30 April 2013; Revised 9 September 2013; Accepted 14 September 2013
Academic Editor: Yoshio Ishibashi
Copyright © 2013 Margarita Montoya-Buelna et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- I. M. B. Goulart and L. R. Goulart, “Leprosy: diagnostic and control challenges for a worldwide disease,” Archives of Dermatological Research, vol. 300, no. 6, pp. 269–290, 2008.
- “Global leprosy situation,” The Weekly Epidemiological Record, vol. 87, no. 34, pp. 317–328, 2012.
- D. S. Ridley and W. H. Jopling, “Classification of leprosy according to immunity. A five-group system,” International Journal of Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 255–273, 1966.
- E. A. Misch, W. R. Berrington, J. C. Vary Jr., and T. R. Hawn, “Leprosy and the human genome,” Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 589–620, 2010.
- R. Medzhitov, “Recognition of microorganisms and activation of the immune response,” Nature, vol. 449, no. 7164, pp. 819–826, 2007.
- T. K. Means, E. Lien, A. Yoshimura, S. Wang, D. T. Golenbock, and M. J. Fenton, “The CD14 ligands lipoarabinomannan and lipopolysaccharide differ in their requirement for toll-like receptors,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 163, no. 12, pp. 6748–6755, 1999.
- H. D. Brightbill, D. H. Libraty, S. R. Krutzik et al., “Host defense mechanisms triggered by microbial lipoproteins through toll-like receptors,” Science, vol. 285, no. 5428, pp. 732–736, 1999.
- D. M. Underhill, A. Ozinsky, K. D. Smith, and A. Aderem, “Toll-like receptor-2 mediates mycobacteria-induced proinflammatory signaling in macrophages,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 96, no. 25, pp. 14459–14463, 1999.
- S. R. Krutzik, M. T. Ochoa, P. A. Sieling et al., “Activation and regulation of Toll-like receptors 2 and 1 in human leprosy,” Nature Medicine, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 525–532, 2003.
- N. Court, S. Rose, M.-L. Bourigault et al., “Mycobacterial PIMs inhibit host inflammatory responses through CD14-dependent and CD14-independent mechanisms,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 9, Article ID e24631, 2011.
- P. K. Dagur, B. Sharma, R. Upadhyay, et al., “Phenolic-glycolipid-1 and lipoarabinomannan preferentially modulate TCR- and CD28-triggered proximal biochemical events, leading to T-cell unresponsiveness in mycobacterial diseases,” Lipids in Health and Disease, vol. 11, p. 119, 2012.
- Y. Bulut, E. Faure, L. Thomas, O. Equils, and M. Arditi, “Cooperation of Toll-like receptor 2 and 6 for cellular activation by soluble tuberculosis factor and Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein a lipoprotein: role of Toll-interacting protein and IL-1 receptor signaling molecules in Toll-like receptor 2 signaling,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 167, no. 2, pp. 987–994, 2001.
- K. Burns, J. Clatworthy, L. Martin et al., “Tollip, a new component of the IL-1RI pathway, links IRAK to the IL-1 receptor,” Nature Cell Biology, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 346–351, 2000.
- T. Li, J. Hu, and L. Li, “Characterization of Tollip protein upon Lipopolysaccharide challenge,” Molecular Immunology, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 85–92, 2004.
- W. Piao, C. Song, H. Chen et al., “Endotoxin tolerance dysregulates MyD88- and Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-β-dependent pathways and increases expression of negative regulators of TLR signaling,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 863–875, 2009.
- G. Zhang and S. Ghosh, “Negative regulation of toll-like receptor-mediated signaling by Tollip,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 277, no. 9, pp. 7059–7065, 2002.
- A. Didierlaurent, B. Brissoni, D. Velin et al., “Tollip regulates proinflammatory responses to interleukin-1 and lipopolysaccharide,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 735–742, 2006.
- W.-Q. Song, H.-H. Li, H.-B. Chen, J.-S. Yuan, and X.-J. Yin, “Relationship between polymorphism sites of IRF5, TLR-9 and SLE patients in Shandong Han population,” Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi, vol. 89, no. 43, pp. 3038–3042, 2009.
- D. N. Cook, J. W. Hollingsworth II, and D. A. Schwartz, “Toll-like receptors and the genetics of innate immunity,” Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 523–529, 2003.
- A. Soylu, S. Kizildaǧ, S. Kavukçu et al., “TLR-2 Arg753Gln, TLR-4 Asp299Gly, and TLR-4 Thr399Ile polymorphisms in Henoch Schonlein purpura with and without renal involvement,” Rheumatology International, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 667–670, 2010.
- S. Pandey, R. D. Mittal, M. Srivastava et al., “Impact of Toll-like receptors [TLR] 2 (-196 to -174 del) and TLR 4 (Asp299Gly, Thr399Ile) in cervical cancer susceptibility in North Indian women,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 114, no. 3, pp. 501–505, 2009.
- E. G. Pamer, “TLR polymorphisms and the risk of invasive fungal infections,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 359, no. 17, pp. 1836–1838, 2008.
- P.-Y. Bochud, T. R. Hawn, M. R. Siddiqui et al., “Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) polymorphisms are associated with reversal reaction in leprosy,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 197, no. 2, pp. 253–261, 2008.
- P.-Y. Bochud, J. W. Chien, K. A. Marr et al., “Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms and aspergillosis in stem-cell transplantation,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 359, no. 17, pp. 1766–1777, 2008.
- N. W. J. Schröder, C. Hermann, L. Hamann, U. B. Göbel, T. Hartung, and R. R. Schumann, “High frequency of polymorphism Arg753Gln of the Toll-like receptor-2 gene detected by a novel allele-specific PCR,” Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 81, no. 6, pp. 368–372, 2003.
- J. A. Shah, C. Vary, T. H. Chau, et al., “Human TOLLIP regulates TLR2 and TLR4 signaling and its polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 189, no. 4, pp. 1737–1746, 2012.
- C. Gorodezky, C. Alaez, M. N. Vázquez-García et al., “The genetic structure of Mexican Mestizos of different locations: tracking back their origins through MHC genes, blood group systems, and microsatellites,” Human Immunology, vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 979–991, 2001.
- I. Silva-Zolezzi, A. Hidalgo-Miranda, J. Estrada-Gil et al., “Analysis of genomic diversity in Mexican Mestizo populations to develop genomic medicine in Mexico,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 21, pp. 8611–8616, 2009.
- S. A. Miller, D. D. Dykes, and H. F. Polesky, “A simple salting out procedure for extracting DNA from human nucleated cells,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 16, no. 3, p. 1215, 1988.
- T. T. Schimming, Q. Parwez, E. Petrasch-Parwez, M. Nothnagel, J. T. Epplen, and S. Hoffjan, “Association of toll-interacting protein gene polymorphisms with atopic dermatitis,” BMC Dermatology, vol. 7, article 3, 2007.
- C. J. Sanguinetti, E. D. Neto, and A. J. G. Simpson, “Rapid silver staining and recovery of PCR products separated on polyacrylamide gels,” BioTechniques, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 914–921, 1994.
- L. Excoffier and M. Slatkin, “Maximum-likelihood estimation of molecular haplotype frequencies in a diploid population,” Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 921–927, 1995.
- R. C. Lewontin, “The Interaction of Selection and Linkage. Ii. Optimum Models,” Genetics, vol. 50, pp. 757–782, 1964.
- E. Lander and L. Kruglyak, “Genetic dissection of complex traits: guidelines for interpreting and reporting linkage results,” Nature Genetics, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 241–247, 1995.
- K. L. O'Connor, C. R. Hill, P. M. Vallone, and J. M. Butler, “Linkage disequilibrium analysis of D12S391 and vWA in U.S. population and paternity samples,” Forensic Science International, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 538–540, 2011.
- R. B. Oliveira, M. T. Ochoa, P. A. Sieling et al., “Expression of toll-like receptor 2 on human schwann cells: a mechanism of nerve damage in leprosy,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 1427–1433, 2003.
- G. Melmed, L. S. Thomas, N. Lee et al., “Human intestinal epithelial cells are broadly unresponsive to toll-like receptor 2-dependent bacterial ligands: implications for host-microbial interactions in the gut,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 170, no. 3, pp. 1406–1415, 2003.
- J.-M. Otte, E. Cario, and D. K. Podolsky, “Mechanisms of cross hyporesponsiveness to toll-like receptor bacterial ligands in intestinal epithelial cells,” Gastroenterology, vol. 126, no. 4, pp. 1054–1070, 2004.
- S. Akira and K. Takeda, “Toll-like receptor signalling,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 499–511, 2004.
- Z. Song, J. Yin, C. Yao et al., “Variants in the Toll-interacting protein gene are associated with susceptibility to sepsis in the Chinese Han population,” Critical Care, vol. 15, no. 1, article R12, 2011.
- T. Masaki, J. Qu, J. Cholewa-Waclaw, K. Burr, R. Raaum, and A. Rambukkana, “Reprogramming adult Schwann cells to stem cell-like cells by leprosy bacilli promotes dissemination of infection,” Cell, vol. 152, no. 1, pp. 51–67, 2013.