About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 465213, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/465213
Research Article

Use of Metarhizium anisopliae Chitinase Genes for Genotyping and Virulence Characterization

International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe), P.O. Box 30772, Nairobi 00100, Kenya

Received 5 April 2013; Revised 7 June 2013; Accepted 13 June 2013

Academic Editor: K. Iatrou

Copyright © 2013 Saliou Niassy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. N. K. Maniania and K. Takasu, “Development of microbial agents at the centre for insect physiology and ecology,” Bulletin of the Institute of Tropical Agriculture, pp. 291–299, 2006.
  2. S. Ekesi and N. K. Maniania, “Metarhizium anisopliae: an effective biological control agent for the management of thrips in horti and floriculture in Africa,” in Advances in Microbial Control of Insects Pests, R. K. Upadhyay, Ed., Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, NY, USA, 2000.
  3. D. Chandler, G. Davidson, W. P. Grant, J. Greaves, and G. M. Tatchell, “Microbial biopesticides for integrated crop management: an assessment of environmental and regulatory sustainability,” Trends in Food Science and Technology, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 275–283, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. L. Lacey, Manual of Techniques Insects Pathology, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1997.
  5. R. J. S. Leger, L. Joshi, M. J. Bidochka, N. W. Rizzo, and D. W. Roberts, “Characterization and ultrastructural localization of chitinases from Metarhizium anisopliae, M. flavoviride, and Beauveria bassiana during fungal invasion of host (Manduca sexta) cuticle,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 907–912, 1996. View at Scopus
  6. S. E. Screen and R. J. St. Leger, “Cloning, expression, and substrate specificity of a fungal chymotrypsin. Evidence for lateral gene transfer from an actinomycete bacterium,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 275, no. 9, pp. 6689–6694, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Gang Hu, Using the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae as a model system to study the role of gene duplication, divergence and expression in adapting to pathogenicity [Ph.D. thesis], University of Maryland, 2005.
  8. Q. Gao, K. Jin, S. H. Ying et al., “Genome sequencing and comparative transcriptomics of the model entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and M. acridum,” PLoS Genetics, vol. 7, no. 1, Article ID e1001264, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. Duo-Chuan, “Review of fungal chitinases,” Mycopathologia, vol. 161, no. 6, pp. 345–360, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Musumeci and G. M. Paoletti, Binomium Chitin-Chitinase: Recent Issues, Nova Science, New York, NY, USA, 2009.
  11. M. Rai and G. Kovics, Progress in Mycology, Springer Scientific, Jodhpur, India, 2010.
  12. V. Seidl, C. Gamauf, I. S. Druzhinina, B. Seiboth, L. Hartl, and C. P. Kubicek, “The Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei) hypercellulolytic mutant RUT C30 lacks a 85 kb (29 gene-encoding) region of the wild-type genome,” BMC Genomics, vol. 9, article 327, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L. G. Baker, C. A. Specht, and J. K. Lodge, “Chitinases are essential for sexual development but not vegetative growth in Cryptococcus neoformans,” Eukaryotic Cell, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 1692–1705, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. V. Seidl, L. Song, E. Lindquist et al., “Transcriptomic response of the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma atroviride to the presence of a fungal prey,” BMC Genomics, vol. 10, article 567, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. C. Kang, S. Park, and D. G. Lee, “Purification and characterization of a novel chitinase from the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 276–281, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. R. Bogo, C. A. Rota, H. Pinto Jr. et al., “A Chitinase encoding gene (chit1 gene) from the entomopathogen Metarhizium anisopliae: isolation and characterization of genomic and full-length cDNA,” Current Microbiology, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 221–225, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. M. Baratto, M. V. da Silva, L. Santi et al., “Expression and characterization of the 42 kDa chitinase of the biocontrol fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in Escherichia coli,” Canadian Journal of Microbiology, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 723–726, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. Enkerli, V. Ghormade, C. Oulevey, and F. Widmer, “PCR-RFLP analysis of chitinase genes enables efficient genotyping of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 185–188, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. C. C. Barreto, C. C. Staats, A. Schrank, and M. H. Vainstein, “Distribution of chitinases in the entomopathogen Metarhizium anisopliae and effect of N-acetylglucosamine in protein secretion,” Current Microbiology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 102–107, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. T. Boldo, A. Junges, K. B. do Amaral, C. C. Staats, M. H. Vainstein, and A. Schrank, “Endochitinase CHI2 of the biocontrol fungus Metarhizium anisopliae affects its virulence toward the cotton stainer bug Dysdercus peruvianus,” Current Genetics, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 551–560, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. Y. Arakane and S. Muthukrishnan, “Insect chitinase and chitinase-like proteins,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 201–216, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. M. Baratto, V. Dutra, J. T. Boldo, L. B. Leiria, M. H. Vainstein, and A. Schrank, “Isolation, characterization, and transcriptional analysis of the chitinase chi2 gene (DQ011663) from the biocontrol fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae,” Current Microbiology, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 217–221, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. P. G. V. Bhanu, V. Padmaja, S. K. Jami, and P. B. Kirti, “Expression of chitinase genes of Metarhizium anisopliae isolates in lepidopteran pests and on synthetic media,” Journal of Basic Microbiology, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 628–635, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. W. Fang, B. Leng, Y. Xiao et al., “Cloning of Beauveria bassiana chitinase gene Bbchit1 and its application to improve fungal strain virulence,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 363–370, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Drummond, B. Ashton, and S. Buxton, “Geneious v5.4,” 2011, http://www.geneious.com/.
  26. K. Tamura, J. Dudley, M. Nei, and S. Kumar, “MEGA4: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0,” Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 1596–1599, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. H. Li and L. H. Greene, “Sequence and structural analysis of the chitinase insertion domain reveals two conserved motifs involved in chitin-binding,” PLoS ONE, vol. 5, no. 1, Article ID e8654, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Dimbi, N. K. Maniania, S. A. Lux, S. Ekesi, and J. K. Mueke, “Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, to three adult fruit fly species: Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), C. rosa var. fasciventris Karsch and C. cosyra (Walker) (Diptera: Tephritidae),” Mycopathologia, vol. 156, no. 4, pp. 375–382, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. Ekesi, N. K. Maniania, I. Onu, and B. Löhr, “Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi (Hyphomycetes) to the legume flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom)(Thysan., Thripidae),” Journal of Applied Entomology, vol. 122, no. 9-10, pp. 629–634, 1998. View at Scopus
  30. D. M. Bugeme, M. Knapp, H. I. Boga, A. K. Wanjoya, and N. K. Maniania, “Influence of temperature on virulence of fungal isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae,” Mycopathologia, vol. 167, no. 4, pp. 221–227, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L. N. Migiro, N. K. Maniania, A. Chabi-Olaye, and J. Vandenberg, “Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) isolates to the adult pea leafminer (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and prospects of an autoinoculation device for infection in the field,” Environmental Entomology, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 468–475, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Niassy, N. K. Maniania, S. Subramanian et al., “Selection of promising fungal biological control agent of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande),” Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 487–493, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. Ngakou, M. Tamò, I. A. Parh et al., “Management of cowpea flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti (Thysanoptera, Thripidae), in Cameroon,” Crop Protection, vol. 27, no. 3–5, pp. 481–488, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. Ondiaka, N. K. Maniania, G. H. N. Nyamasyo, and J. H. Nderitu, “Virulence of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to sweet potato weevil Cylas puncticollis and effects on fecundity and egg viability,” Annals of Applied Biology, vol. 153, no. 1, pp. 41–48, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. M. Mburu, M. W. Ndung'u, N. K. Maniania, and A. Hassanali, “Comparison of volatile blends and gene sequences of two isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae of different virulence and repellency toward the termite Macrotermes michaelseni,” Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 214, no. 6, pp. 956–962, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. M. Mburu, L. Ochola, N. K. Maniania et al., “Relationship between virulence and repellency of entomopathogenic isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to the termite Macrotermes michaelseni,” Journal of Insect Physiology, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 774–780, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. D. M. Bugeme, N. K. Maniania, M. Knapp, and H. I. Boga, “Effect of temperature on virulence of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae isolates to Tetranychus evansi,” Experimental and Applied Acarology, vol. 46, no. 1–4, pp. 275–285, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. N. K. Maniania, “A low-cost contamination device for infecting adult tsetse flies, Glossina spp., with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in the field,” Biocontrol Science and Technology, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 59–66, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. F. Nchu, N. K. Maniania, A. Touré, A. Hassanali, and J. N. Eloff, “The use of a semiochemical bait to enhance exposure of Amblyomma variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae) to Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales),” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 160, no. 3-4, pp. 279–284, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. P. Nana, N. K. Maniania, R. O. Maranga et al., “Attraction response of adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus pulchellus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks to extracts from Calpurnia aurea (Fabaceae),” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 174, no. 1-2, pp. 124–130, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. V. W. Wekesa, N. K. Maniania, M. Knapp, and H. I. Boga, “Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to the tobacco spider mite Tetranychus evansi,” Experimental and Applied Acarology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 41–50, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. J. Bidochka, “Monitoring the fate of biocontrol fungi,” in Fungi as Biocontrol Agents: Progress Problems and Potential, T. M. Butt, C. W. Jackson, and N. Magan, Eds., pp. 193–218, CABI, Oxon, UK, 2001.
  43. N. V. Meyling and J. Eilenberg, “Ecology of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in temperate agroecosystems: potential for conservation biological control,” Biological Control, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 145–155, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Moreira, P. Castanheira, M. Casal, C. Faro, and M. Gama, “Expression of the functional carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) of human laforin,” Protein Expression and Purification, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 169–174, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. Gołębiowskia, E. Malińskia, J. Nawrotb, J. Szafraneka, and P. Stepnowskia, “Identification of the cuticular lipid composition of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis,” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B, vol. 147, no. 2, pp. 288–292, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. G. Moritz, “Stucture, growth and development,” in Thrips as Crop Pest, T. Lewis, Ed., pp. 1–63, CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 1997.
  47. S. Vestergaard, A. T. Gillespie, T. M. Butt, G. Schreiter, and J. Eilenberg, “Pathogenicity of the hyphomycete fungi Verticillium lecanii and Metarhizium anisopliae to the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis,” Biocontrol Science and Technology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 185–192, 1995. View at Scopus
  48. N. K. Maniania, S. Ekesi, B. Löhr, and F. Mwangi, “Prospects for biological control of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, with the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, on chrysanthemum,” Mycopathologia, vol. 155, no. 4, pp. 229–235, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. T. A. Ugine, S. P. Wraight, and J. P. Sanderson, “Acquisition of lethal doses of Beauveria bassiana conidia by western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, exposed to foliar spray residues of formulated and unformulated conidia,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 10–23, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. T. Boldo, K. B. do Amaral, A. Junges et al., “Evidence of alternative splicing of the chi2 chitinase gene from Metarhizium anisopliae,” Gene, vol. 462, no. 1-2, pp. 1–7, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus