About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 475427, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/475427
Research Article

A Neural Network Model Can Explain Ventriloquism Aftereffect and Its Generalization across Sound Frequencies

Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering “Guglielmo Marconi”, University of Bologna, Via Venezia 52, 47521 Cesena, Italy

Received 29 April 2013; Revised 28 August 2013; Accepted 28 August 2013

Academic Editor: James A. Bourne

Copyright © 2013 Elisa Magosso et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Alais, F. N. Newell, and P. Mamassian, “Multisensory processing in review: from physiology to behaviour,” Seeing and Perceiving, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 3–38, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. O. Ernst and H. H. Bülthoff, “Merging the senses into a robust percept,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 162–169, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. B. E. Stein and M. A. Meredith, The Merging of Senses, The MIT Press, 1993.
  4. R. B. Welch and D. H. Warren, “Immediate perceptual response to intersensory discrepancy,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 638–667, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. Bertelson and M. Radeau, “Cross-modal bias and perceptual fusion with auditory-visual spatial discordance,” Perception and Psychophysics, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 578–584, 1981. View at Scopus
  6. G. H. Recanzone, “Interactions of auditory and visual stimuli in space and time,” Hearing Research, vol. 258, no. 1-2, pp. 89–99, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. Bertelson and G. Aschersleben, “Automatic visual bias of perceived auditory location,” Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 482–489, 1998. View at Scopus
  8. D. A. Slutsky and G. H. Recanzone, “Temporal and spatial dependency, of the ventriloquism effect,” NeuroReport, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 7–10, 2001. View at Scopus
  9. B. Bonath, T. Noesselt, A. Martinez et al., “Neural basis of the ventriloquist illusion,” Current Biology, vol. 17, no. 19, pp. 1697–1703, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. C. Bertini, F. Leo, A. Avenanti, and E. Làdavas, “Independent mechanisms for ventriloquism and multisensory integration as revealed by theta-burst stimulation,” European Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1791–1799, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. F. Leo, N. Bolognini, C. Passamonti, B. E. Stein, and E. Làdavas, “Cross-modal localization in hemianopia: new insights on multisensory integration,” Brain, vol. 131, no. 3, pp. 855–865, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. G. H. Recanzone, “Rapidly induced auditory plasticity: the ventriloquism aftereffect,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 869–875, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. R. Wozny and L. Shams, “Recalibration of auditory space following milliseconds of cross-modal discrepancy,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 4607–4612, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. I. Frissen, J. Vroomen, and B. De Gelder, “The aftereffects of ventriloquism: the time course of the visual recalibration of auditory localization,” Seeing and Perceiving, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Lewald, “Rapid adaptation to auditory-visual spatial disparity,” Learning and Memory, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 268–278, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. T. M. Woods and G. H. Recanzone, “Visually induced plasticity of auditory spatial perception in macaques,” Current Biology, vol. 14, no. 17, pp. 1559–1564, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. I. Frissen, J. Vroomen, B. de Gelder, and P. Bertelson, “The aftereffects of ventriloquism: are they sound-frequency specific?” Acta Psychologica, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 315–327, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. I. Frissen, J. Vroomen, B. de Gelder, and P. Bertelson, “The aftereffects of ventriloquism: generalization across sound-frequencies,” Acta Psychologica, vol. 118, no. 1-2, pp. 93–100, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. P. Bertelson, I. Frissen, J. Vroomen, and B. De Gelder, “The aftereffects of ventriloquism: patterns of spatial generalization,” Perception and Psychophysics, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 428–436, 2006. View at Scopus
  20. R. Rajan, L. M. Aitkin, and D. R. F. Irvine, “Azimuthal sensitivity of neurons in primary auditory cortex of cats—I. Types of sensitivity and the effects of variations in stimulus parameters,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 872–887, 1990.
  21. G. H. Recanzone, D. C. Guard, and M. L. Phan, “Frequency and intensity response properties of single neurons in the auditory cortex of the behaving macaque monkey,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 83, no. 4, pp. 2315–2331, 2000. View at Scopus
  22. G. H. Recanzone, “Spatial processing in the auditory cortex of the macaque monkey,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 97, no. 22, pp. 11829–11835, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. H. Recanzone, D. C. Guard, M. L. Phan, and T.-I. K. Su, “Correlation between the activity of single auditory cortical neurons and sound-localization behavior in the macaque monkey,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 2723–2739, 2000. View at Scopus
  24. Y. Kajikawa, L. De La Mothe, S. Blumell, and T. A. Hackett, “A comparison of neuron response properties in areas A1 and CM of the marmoset monkey auditory cortex: tones and broadband noise,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 22–34, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. Cuppini, E. Magosso, B. Rowland, B. Stein, and M. Ursino, “Hebbian mechanisms help explain development of multisensory integration in the superior colliculus: a neural network model,” Biological Cybernetics, vol. 106, no. 11-12, pp. 691–713, 2012.
  26. C. Cuppini, B. E. Stein, B. A. Rowland, E. Magoss, and M. Ursino, “A computational study of multisensory maturation in the superior colliculus (SC),” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 213, no. 2-3, pp. 341–349, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. Cuppini, M. Ursino, E. Magosso, B. A. Rowland, and B. E. Stein, “An emergent model of multisensory integration in superior colliculus neurons,” Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, vol. 4, pp. 1–15, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Ursino, C. Cuppini, E. Magosso, A. Serino, and G. Pellegrino, “Multisensory integration in the superior colliculus: a neural network model,” Journal of Computational Neuroscience, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 55–73, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E. Magosso, C. Cuppini, A. Serino, G. Di Pellegrino, and M. Ursino, “A theoretical study of multisensory integration in the superior colliculus by a neural network model,” Neural Networks, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 817–829, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. E. Magosso, M. Zavaglia, A. Serino, G. di Pellegrino, and M. Ursino, “Visuotactile representation of peripersonal space: a neural network study,” Neural Computation, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 190–243, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. E. Magosso, M. Ursino, G. di Pellegrino, E. Làdavas, and A. Serino, “Neural bases of peri-hand space plasticity through tool-use: insights from a combined computational-experimental approach,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 812–830, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. E. Magosso, “Integrating information from vision and touch: a neural network modeling study,” IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 598–612, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. E. Magosso, C. Cuppini, and M. Ursino, “A neural network model of ventriloquism effect and aftereffect,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 8, Article ID e42503, 2012.
  34. T. M. Woods, S. E. Lopez, J. H. Long, J. E. Rahman, and G. H. Recanzone, “Effects of stimulus azimuth and intensity on the single-neuron activity in the auditory cortex of the alert macaque monkey,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 96, no. 6, pp. 3323–3337, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. W. D. Hairston, M. T. Wallace, J. W. Vaughan, B. E. Stein, J. L. Norris, and J. A. Schirillo, “Visual localization ability influences cross-modal bias,” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 20–29, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. T. Wallace, G. E. Roberson, W. D. Hairston, B. E. Stein, J. W. Vaughan, and J. A. Schirillo, “Unifying multisensory signals across time and space,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 158, no. 2, pp. 252–258, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Radeau, “Signal intensity, task context, and auditory-visual interactions,” Perception, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 571–577, 1985. View at Scopus
  38. N. Bolognini, F. Leo, C. Passamonti, B. E. Stein, and E. Làdavas, “Multisensory-mediated auditory localization,” Perception, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 1477–1485, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. A. Ghazanfar and C. E. Schroeder, “Is neocortex essentially multisensory?” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 278–285, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. C. E. Schroeder, J. Smiley, K. G. Fu, T. McGinnis, M. N. O'Connell, and T. A. Hackett, “Anatomical mechanisms and functional implications of multisensory convergence in early cortical processing,” International Journal of Psychophysiology, vol. 50, no. 1-2, pp. 5–17, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. E. Schroeder and J. Foxe, “Multisensory contributions to low-level, “unisensory” processing,” Current Opinion in Neurobiology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 454–458, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. C. Kayser, C. I. Petkov, and N. K. Logothetis, “Multisensory interactions in primate auditory cortex: fMRI and electrophysiology,” Hearing Research, vol. 258, no. 1-2, pp. 80–88, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. P. Dayan and L. F. Abbott, Philosophical Psycology, The MIT Press, 2001.
  44. K. D. Miller and D. J. C. MacKay, “The role of constraints in Hebbian learning,” Neural Computation, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 100–126, 1994.
  45. C. Passamonti, I. Frissen, and E. Làdavas, “Visual recalibration of auditory spatial perception: two separate neural circuits for perceptual learning,” European Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1141–1150, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus