Table 1: Patient demographics and stone characteristics.

Mean ± SD age (yr)48.2 ± 15.7 (2–79)
No. male/female23 (63.9%)/13 (36.1%)
Mean ± SD stone area (mm2)160.6 ± 82.7 (30–380)
Mean ± SD stone size (mm)14.9 ± 4.1 mm (6–20)
Left/right side stone15 (41.7%)/21 (58.3%)
No. positive preoperative urine cultureNone
No. medical comorbidity
 Hypertension2 (5.6%)
 Diabetes2 (5.6%)
 Renal failure1 (2.8%)
 Spinal disease1 (2.8%)
 Poly renal cyst 1 (2.8%)
Stone locations
 Pelvic calculi5 (14%)
 Upper calyceal stone7 (19.4%)
 Middle calyceal stone8 (22.2%)
 Lower calyceal stone10 (27.8%)
 Upper ureteral stone3 (8.3%)
 Multiple calyceal stones3 (8.3%)
Patients with special situations
 Transplanted kidney stone1 (2.8%)
 Diverticular renal stone2 (5.6%)
 Stone with narrow infundibulum1 (2.8%)
 Residual stones after ESWL6 (16.7%)
 Failed RIRS5 (13.9%)
 Residual stones after PCNL 4 (11.2%)
 Preschool children2 (5.6%)
 Solitary kidney1 (2.8%)