Table 1: Pancreatic cancer-associated antigens for immune targeting.

PC-associated antigensCharacteristics and functionsLocationTumor expressionReferences

CEAGlycoprotein, normally expressed only in oncofetal tissues. Functions as cell-adhesion molecule. First tumor antigen to be described.Cell surface (GPI-linked)Overexpressed[148, 152]
Her2-neuA receptor tyrosine kinase, member of the EGF-receptor family, involved in cell growth and differentiation.TransmembraneOver-expressed[149]
MUC-1Type I transmembrane glycoprotein, expressed on apical surface of ductal and glandular epithelial cells at low levels. Extracellular domain has a polypeptide core with multiple tandem repeats of 20 aminoacids.TransmembraneOver-expressed, hypo-glycosylation[37, 153]
P53Tumor suppressor that regulates cell cycle. Normally inhibits survival at the transcription level and can initiate apoptosis if DNA damage is irreparable. IntracellularMutated self[154, 155]
SurvivinMember of IAP family. Inhibits caspase activation, is found in most human tumors and fetal tissue, but is completely absent in terminally differentiated cells.IntracellularOver-expressed[150]
K-rasMutated form of ras, a GTPase important for cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival.IntracellularMutated self[156]
TelomeraseRibonucleoprotein that is responsible for RNA-dependent synthesis of telomeric DNA. TERT is its catalytic subunit.IntracellularOver-expressed[65]
VEGFR2A tyrosine kinase and member of platelet-derived growth factor family. Receptor for VEGF with functions in blood vessel development.TransmembraneOver-expressed[157]
MesothelinGPI-linked glycoprotein, expressed on the surface of mesothelial cells lining the pleura, peritoneum, and pericardium at low levels. Binding partner of CA125/MUC16.Cell surface (GPI-linked)Over-expressed[27, 158]
Alfa-enolaseGlycolytic enzyme that also acts as a surface plasminogen receptor. Is found in a variety of tissue, on the cell surface as well as within the nucleus and cytosol.Cell surface, IntracellularOver-expressed, post-translational modified (i.e., acetylated)[21, 151, 159]