Table 2: Peptide vaccines-based clinical trial.

Peptide (Adjuvant)CombinationPatients enrolledPhase of the studyClinical resultsReferences

100 mer MUC1
(SB-AS2 adjuvant)
16 with resected or locally advanced PCIDetectable MUC1-specific humoral and T-cell responses were detected in some patients.[102]
100 mer MUC1 (incomplete Freund’s adjuvant)6 with advanced PCIOne patient showed a tendency for increased circulating anti-MUC1 IgG antibody.[103]
VEGFR2-169Gemcitabine21 with unresectable PCISpecific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) reacting to the VEGFR2-169 peptide were induced in 11 (61%) of the 18 evaluable patients. The disease control rate was 67%, and the median overall survival time was 8.7 months.[101]
Telomerase (GM-CSF)48 with advanced PCI/IIImmune responses were observed in 24 of 38 evaluable patients. One-year survival for the evaluable patients in the intermediate dose group was 25%.[105]
Mutant K-ras (GM-CSF)10 with resected and 38 with advanced PCI/IIImmune response to the peptide vaccine showed prolonged survival compared to nonresponders. K-ras-specific T cells were selectively accumulated in the tumor.[77]
Mutant K-ras (GM-CSF)24 with resected PCPilot studyVaccination proved to be safe and tolerable with however no elicitable immunogenicity and unproven efficacy.[107]
13 mer mutant ras 5 with PC and 7 with colorectal cancer IIThis vaccine is safe, can induce specific immune responses, and it appears to have a positive outcome in overall survival. The five pancreatic cancer patients have shown a mean disease-free survival (DFS) of 35.2+ months and a mean overall survival (OS) of 44.4+ months.[108]
Mutant ras long peptide23 with resected PCI17 of 20 evaluable patients (85%) responded immunologically to the vaccine. Ten-year survival was 20% (four patients out of 20 evaluable).[111]
Surviving1 with liver metastasis of PC refractory to gemcitabineCase reportThe patient initially underwent partial remission of liver metastasis which proceeded after 6 months into a complete remission with duration of 8 months.[17]
Personalized peptide vaccineGemcitabine11 with advanced PCIThe 6- and 12-month survival rates for patients who received >3 vaccinations ( ) were 80% and 20%, respectively.[12]