Table 2: Helminth regulation of type 1 diabetes.

HelminthAutoimmune disease modelIncidenceInsulitisBlood glucose levelAssociated leukocyte populationsCytokines involvedRef.

T.  crassiceps T1D/MLD-STZ50%0%200 mg/dLAAMs, Th2 cellsHigh IL-4; low TNF- [17]
S.  mansoni T1D/MLD-STZN.S.Relatively less infiltration and injury200 mg/dLTh2 cellsHigh IL-4/10/5; low IFN- [48]
S.  mansoni T1D/NOD mice10–30%N.S.<150 mg/dLTh2 cells, eosinophilsHigh IL-4[49]
T.  spiralis T1D/NOD mice10%N.S.<200 mg/dLTh2 cellsHigh IL-4[50]
L.  sigmodontis T1D/NOD mice0%70%≤230 mg/dLAAMs, Th2 cells, TregsHigh IL-4/5[51]
H.  polygyrus T1D/NOD mice0%20%<200 mg/dLAAMs, Th2 cellsHigh IL-4/13/10; low IFN-γ/IL-17[15]

T1D: type 1 diabetes; MLD-STZ: multiple low doses of streptozotocin; NOD: nonobese diabetic; N.S.: not specified; incidence defined as mice with blood glucose levels greater than 230 mg/dL, while in the other models this was defined as blood glucose levels greater than 200 mg/dL.