Table 3: Helminth regulation of rheumatoid arthritis.

Helminth involvedAutoimmune modelIncidenceClinical scoreHistopathologyHumoral immunityCytokinesLeukocytesRef.

T.  crassiceps CFA monoarthritis100%2/4Similar damage in the infected groupHigh IgG1 and IgG2aLow IFN-γ and IL-4AAMs[65]
S. DBA.1 mice60%3/9Ameliorated sinovial hyperplasia, mononuclear cell infiltration, and angiogenesisLow IgG2a; high IgG1High IL-4/10; low IL-1 /6 TNF-α, IFN-γTh2 cells, Tregs[66]
S.  oblevata CFA monoarthritis21%1.45/4N.S.N.S.N.S.N.S.[67]
S.  mansoni DBA.1 mice0%0/6N.S.Low IgG1 and IgG2aHigh IL-4/10; low IFN-γTregs[68]
S. DBA.1N.S.1/9No synovial hyperplasia, inflammatory infiltrate, or bon/cartilage destructionLow IgG2aHigh IL-4/10 RANKL; low IL-17-α, IFN-γ, TNF-αNo Tregs[69]
H.  diminuta CFA monoarthritisN.S.N.S.Any knee swellingN.S.High IL-4/10; low TNF-α, IL-12p40AAMs, Th2 and B2 cells, less granulocyte infiltration[70]

CFA: complete Freund’s adjuvant; *two-week preinfected mice; **seven-week preinfected mice; N.S.: not specified. see original references, as disease severity is differentially evaluated between models.