- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 516427, 8 pages
Corticospinal Reorganization after Locomotor Training in a Person with Motor Incomplete Paraplegia
1Electrophysiological Analysis of Gait and Posture Laboratory, Sensory Motor Performance Program, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, 345 East Superior Street, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
3Department of Physical Therapy and the Graduate Center, The City University of New York, Staten Island, NY 10314, USA
Received 28 August 2012; Accepted 15 November 2012
Academic Editor: Francisco Miró
Copyright © 2013 Nupur Hajela et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- S. Rossignol, G. Barrière, A. Frigon et al., “Plasticity of locomotor sensorimotor interactions after peripheral and/or spinal lesions,” Brain Research Reviews, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 228–240, 2008.
- V. R. Edgerton, N. J. K. Tillakaratne, A. J. Bigbee, R. D. de Leon, and R. R. Roy, “Plasticity of the spinal neural circuitry after injury,” Annual Review of Neuroscience, vol. 27, pp. 145–167, 2004.
- I. N. Beloozerova and M. G. Sirota, “The role of the motor cortex in the control of accuracy of locomotor movements in the cat,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 461, pp. 1–25, 1993.
- I. N. Beloozerova, B. J. Farrell, M. G. Sirota, and B. I. Prilutsky, “Differences in movement mechanics, electromyographic, and motor cortex activity between accurate and nonaccurate stepping,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 2285–2300, 2010.
- T. Drew, J. E. Andujar, K. Lajoie, and S. Yakovenko, “Cortical mechanisms involved in visuomotor coordination during precision walking,” Brain Research Reviews, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 199–211, 2008.
- D. M. Armstrong and T. Drew, “Discharges of pyramidal tract and other motor cortical neurones during locomotion in the cat,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 346, pp. 471–495, 1984.
- D. M. Armstrong and T. Drew, “Locomotor-related neuronal discharges in cat motor cortex compared with peripheral receptive fields and evoked movements,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 346, pp. 497–517, 1984.
- T. Drew, “Motor cortical activity during voluntary gait modifications in the cat. I. Cells related to the forelimbs,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 179–199, 1993.
- D. Barthélemy, M. J. Grey, J. B. Nielsen, and L. Bouyer, “Involvement of the corticospinal tract in the control of human gait,” Progress in Brain Research, vol. 192, pp. 181–197, 2011.
- J. Nielsen, N. Petersen, and B. Fedirchuk, “Evidence suggesting a transcortical pathway from cutaneous foot afferents to tibialis anterior motoneurones in man,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 501, no. 2, pp. 473–484, 1997.
- D. Barthélemy, M. Willerslev-Olsen, H. Lundell et al., “Impaired transmission in the corticospinal tract and gait disability in spinal cord injured persons,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 1167–1176, 2010.
- B. H. Dobkin, “Functional rewiring of brain and spinal cord after injury: the three Rs of neural repair and neurological rehabilitation,” Current Opinion in Neurology, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 655–659, 2000.
- J. R. Wolpaw and A. M. Tennissen, “Activity-dependent spinal cord plasticity in health and disease,” Annual Review of Neuroscience, vol. 24, pp. 807–843, 2001.
- B. Dobkin, D. Apple, H. Barbeau et al., “Weight-supported treadmill vs over-ground training for walking after acute incomplete SCI,” Neurology, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 484–493, 2006.
- M. Knikou, “Neural control of locomotion and training-induced plasticity after spinal and cerebral lesions,” Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 121, no. 10, pp. 1655–1668, 2010.
- M. Knikou, “Plasticity of corticospinal neural control after locomotor training in human spinal cord injury,” Neural Plasticity, vol. 2012, Article ID 254948, 2012.
- P. Winchester, R. McColl, R. Querry et al., “Changes in supraspinal activation patterns following robotic locomotor therapy in motor-incomplete spinal cord injury,” Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 313–324, 2005.
- S. L. Thomas and M. A. Gorassini, “Increases in corticospinal tract function by treadmill training after incomplete spinal cord injury,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 2844–2855, 2005.
- C. S. Sherrington, “Flexion-reflex of the limb, crossed extension-reflex and reflex stepping and standing,” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 40, pp. 28–121, 1910.
- M. Knikou, “Plantar cutaneous input modulates differently spinal reflexes in subjects with intact and injured spinal cord,” Spinal Cord, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 69–77, 2007.
- M. Knikou, “Plantar cutaneous afferents normalize the reflex modulation patterns during stepping in chronic human spinal cord injury,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 1304–1314, 2010.
- M. Knikou, C. A. Angeli, C. K. Ferreira, and S. J. Harkema, “Flexion reflex modulation during stepping in human spinal cord injury,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 196, no. 3, pp. 341–351, 2009.
- M. Knikou, N. Hajela, C. K. Mummidisetty, M. Xiao, and A. C. Smith, “Soleus H-reflex phase-dependent modulation is preserved during stepping within a robotic exoskeleton,” Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 122, no. 7, pp. 1396–1404, 2011.
- J. N. Sanes and J. P. Donoghue, “Plasticity and primary motor cortex,” Annual Review of Neuroscience, vol. 23, pp. 393–415, 2000.
- D. E. Feldman, “Synaptic mechanisms for plasticity in neocortex,” Annual Review of Neuroscience, vol. 32, pp. 33–55, 2009.
- M. Butz, F. Wörgötter, and A. van Ooyen, “Activity-dependent structural plasticity,” Brain Research Reviews, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 287–305, 2009.
- J. Valls-Solé, A. Pascual-Leone, E. M. Wassermann, and M. Hallett, “Human motor evoked responses to paired transcranial magnetic stimuli,” Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 85, no. 6, pp. 355–364, 1992.
- V. Di Lazzaro, D. Restuccia, A. Oliviero et al., “Magnetic transcranial stimulation at intensities below active motor threshold activates intracortical inhibitory circuits,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 119, no. 2, pp. 265–268, 1998.
- T. Kujirai, M. D. Caramia, J. C. Rothwell et al., “Corticocortical inhibition in human motor cortex,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 471, pp. 501–519, 1993.
- J. M. A. Cowan, B. L. Day, C. Marsden, and J. C. Rothwell, “The effect of percutaneous motor cortex stimulation on H reflexes in muscles of the arm and leg in intact man,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 377, pp. 333–347, 1986.
- A. Rossi, A. Zalaffi, and B. Decchi, “Interaction of nociceptive and non-nociceptive cutaneous afferents from foot sole in common reflex pathways to tibialis anterior motoneurones in humans,” Brain Research, vol. 714, no. 1-2, pp. 76–86, 1996.
- M. Inghilleri, A. Berardelli, G. Cruccu, A. Priori, and M. Manfredi, “Corticospinal potentials after transcranial stimulation in humans,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 970–974, 1989.
- B. Dobkin, H. Barbeau, D. Deforge et al., “The evolution of walking-related outcomes over the first 12 weeks of rehabilitation for incomplete traumatic spinal cord injury: the multicenter randomized Spinal Cord Injury Locomotor trial,” Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 25–35, 2007.
- M. Turiel, S. Sitia, S. Cicala et al., “Robotic treadmill training improves cardiovascular function in spinal cord injury patients,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 149, no. 3, pp. 323–329, 2011.
- J. R. Wolpaw and J. A. O'Keefe, “Adaptive plasticity in the primate spinal stretch reflex: evidence for a two-phase process,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 2718–2724, 1984.