A higher adherence to a dietary pattern characterized by a high intake of soybeans and soybean products, vegetables, algae, and milk and dairy products and a low intake of rice is associated with dementia in the general Japanese population.
A “healthy” cluster characterized by higher consumption of fish by men and fruits and vegetables by women had a significantly lower mean number of errors to Mini Mental State score after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (beta = −0.11; 95% confidence interval (CI), −0.22 to −0.004 in men; beta = −0.13; 95% CI, −0.22 to −0.04 in women).
Higher adherence to the MeDi was associated with lower risk for AD (odds ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.67–0.87; ). Compared with subjects in the lowest MeDi tertile, subjects in the middle MeDi tertile had an odds ratio of 0.47 (95% confidence interval, 0.29–0.76) and those at the highest tertile had an odds ratio of 0.32 (95% confidence interval, 0.17–0.59) for AD ( for trend <0.001).
Higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with slower MMSE cognitive decline but not consistently with other cognitive tests. Higher adherence was not associated with risk for incident dementia.