Table 1: Summary of studies linking dietary pattern to cognitive function and AD.

ReferenceParticipantsDesignResult

Ozawa et al. [63] 1006 Japanese community CohortA higher adherence to a dietary pattern characterized by a high intake of soybeans and soybean products, vegetables, algae, and milk and dairy products and a low intake of rice is associated with dementia in the general Japanese population.

Kesse-Guyot et al. [64] 3054 participants Cohort The healthy pattern was associated with better global cognitive function (50.1 ± 0.7 versus 48.9 ± 0.7; trend = 0.001) and verbal memory (49.7 ± 0.4 versus 48.7 ± 0.4; trend = 0.01).

Samieri et al. [65]1724 elderly community dwellersCohortA “healthy” cluster characterized by higher consumption of fish by men and fruits and vegetables by women had a significantly lower mean number of errors to Mini Mental State score after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (beta = −0.11; 95% confidence interval (CI), −0.22 to −0.004 in men; beta = −0.13; 95% CI, −0.22 to −0.04 in women).

Eskelinen et al. [66]525 subjectsCohortPersons with a healthy diet (healthy-diet index >8 points) had a decreased risk of AD (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.01–0.09) compared to persons with an unhealthy diet (0–8 points)

Smith et al. [67]124 participants with elevated blood pressure Randomized controlled trial DASH diet combining aerobic exercise and caloric restriction improves neurocognitive function among sedentary and overweight/obese individuals with prehypertension and hypertension.

Scarmeas et al. [68]2258 nondemented individuals Case control Higher adherence to the MeDi was associated with lower risk for AD (odds ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.67–0.87; ). Compared with subjects in the lowest MeDi tertile, subjects in the middle MeDi tertile had an odds ratio of 0.47 (95% confidence interval, 0.29–0.76) and those at the highest tertile had an odds ratio of 0.32 (95% confidence interval, 0.17–0.59) for AD ( for trend <0.001).

Scarmeas et al. [69] 1393 cognitively normal participants Cohort Higher adherence to the MeDi is associated with a trend for reduced risk of developing MCI and with reduced risk of MCI conversion to AD.

Féart et al. [70]1410 adults aged over 65 yCohortHigher adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with slower MMSE cognitive decline but not consistently with other cognitive tests. Higher adherence was not associated with risk for incident dementia.

Tangney et al. [71] 3790 participants aged over 65CohortThe Mediterranean dietary pattern may reduce the rate of cognitive decline with older age.