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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 562924, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/562924
Review Article

Oligomannose-Coated Liposome as a Novel Adjuvant for the Induction of Cellular Immune Responses to Control Disease Status

Department of Applied Biochemistry, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292, Japan

Received 20 June 2013; Accepted 3 September 2013

Academic Editor: Mohammad Owais

Copyright © 2013 Naoya Kojima et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Professional phagocytic cells, such as dendritic cells, are mainly responsible for phagocytosis, antigen presentation, and cytokine secretion, which induce subsequent activation of T cell-mediated immunity. Thus, strategies that deliver antigens and stimulatory signals to the cells have significant implications for vaccine design. In this paper, we summarize the potential for liposomes coated with the neoglycolipids containing oligomannose residues (OMLs) as a novel adjuvant for induction of Th1 immune responses and CTLs specific for the encased antigen. OMLs preferentially take up peripheral phagocytic cells. In response to OML uptake, the cells secrete IL-12 selectively, enhance the expression of costimulatory molecules, and migrate into lymphoid tissues from peripheral tissues. OMLs also have the ability to deliver encapsulated protein antigens to the MHC class I and class II pathways to generate antigen-specific CTLs and Th1 cells, respectively, and lipid antigen to CD1d to activate NKT cells. Since administration of OML-based vaccines can eliminate an established tumor, inhibit elevation of the serum IgE level, and prevent progression of protozoan infections in several murine, human, and bovine models, OML-based vaccines have revealed their potential for clinical use in vaccination for a variety of diseases in which CTLs and/or Th1 cells act as effector cells.