- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 568671, 11 pages
The Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid DHA Induces Simultaneous Apoptosis and Autophagy via Mitochondrial ROS-Mediated Akt-mTOR Signaling in Prostate Cancer Cells Expressing Mutant p53
1Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747, Republic of Korea
2Infection Signaling Network Research Center, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747, Republic of Korea
3Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
4Cancer Research Institute, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747, Republic of Korea
Received 12 March 2013; Accepted 29 April 2013
Academic Editor: Gabriella Calviello
Copyright © 2013 Soyeon Shin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- R. Siegel, D. Naishadham, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 10–29, 2012.
- K. Q. Zhang, S. A. Salzman, D. J. Reding, B. K. Suarez, W. J. Catalona, and J. K. Burmester, “Genetics of prostate cancer,” Clinical Medicine & Research, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 21–28, 2003.
- E. Ho, L. M. Beaver, D. E. Williams, and R. H. Dashwood, “Dietary factors and epigenetic regulation for prostate cancer prevention,” Advances in Nutrition, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 497–510, 2011.
- R. L. Vinall, J. Q. Chen, N. E. Hubbard et al., “Initiation of prostate cancer in mice by Tp53R270H: evidence for an alternative molecular progression,” Disease Models & Mechanisms, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 914–920, 2012.
- M. M. Epstein, J. L. Kasperzyk, L. A. Mucci, et al., “Dietary fatty acid intake and prostate cancer survival in Orebro County, Sweden,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 176, no. 3, pp. 240–252, 2012.
- M. F. Leitzmann, M. J. Stampfer, D. S. Michaud et al., “Dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and the risk of prostate cancer,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 204–216, 2004.
- I. Brown, K. W. J. Wahle, M. G. Cascio et al., “Omega-3 N-acylethanolamines are endogenously synthesised from omega-3 fatty acids in different human prostate and breast cancer cell lines,” Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, vol. 85, no. 6, pp. 305–310, 2011.
- Y. Hu, H. Sun, J. T. O'Flaherty, and I. J. Edwards, “15-Lipoxygenase-1-mediated metabolism of docosahexaenoic acid is required for syndecan-1 signaling and apoptosis in prostate cancer cells,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 176–182, 2013.
- U. P. Kelavkar, J. Hutzley, R. Dhir, P. Kim, K. G. D. Allen, and K. McHugh, “Prostate tumor growth and recurrence can be modulated by the ω-6:ω-3 ratio in diet: Athymic mouse xenograft model simulating radical prostatectomy,” Neoplasia, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 112–124, 2006.
- U. P. Kelavkar, J. Hutzley, K. McHugh, K. G. D. Allen, and A. Parwani, “Prostate tumor growth can be modulated by dietarily targeting the 15-lipoxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 enzymes,” Neoplasia, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 692–699, 2009.
- N. Kobayashi, R. J. Barnard, S. M. Henning et al., “Effect of altering dietary ω-6/ω-3 fatty acid ratios on prostate cancer membrane composition, cyclooxygenase-2, and prostaglandin E2,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 12, no. 15, pp. 4662–4670, 2006.
- B. H. Chung, S. H. Mitchell, J. S. Zhang, and C. Y. F. Young, “Effects of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid on androgen-mediated cell growth and gene expression in LNCaP prostate cancer cells,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 1201–1206, 2001.
- I. J. Edwards, H. Sun, Y. Hu et al., “In vivo and in vitro regulation of syndecan 1 in prostate cells by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 283, no. 26, pp. 18441–18449, 2008.
- Y. Hu, H. Sun, R. T. Owens et al., “Syndecan-1-dependent suppression of PDK1/Akt/Bad signaling by docosahexaenoic acid induces apoptosis in prostate cancer,” Neoplasia, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 826–836, 2010.
- J. A. Akinsete, G. Ion, T. R. Witte, and W. E. Hardman, “Consumption of high ω-3 fatty acid diet suppressed prostate tumorigenesis in C3(1) Tag mice,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 140–148, 2012.
- I. M. Berquin, Y. Min, R. Wu et al., “Modulation of prostate cancer genetic risk by omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 117, no. 7, pp. 1866–1875, 2007.
- M. J. M. Magbanua, R. Roy, E. V. Sosa et al., “Gene expression and biological pathways in tissue of men with prostate cancer in a randomized clinical trial of lycopene and fish oil supplementation,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 9, Article ID e24004, 2011.
- W. Dröge, “Free radicals in the physiological control of cell function,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 47–95, 2002.
- N. Rubio, I. Coupienne, E. Di Valentin, et al., “Spatiotemporal autophagic degradation of oxidatively damaged organelles after photodynamic stress is amplified by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species,” Autophagy, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 1312–1324, 2012.
- H. Zhang, X. Kong, J. Kang et al., “Oxidative stress induces parallel autophagy and mitochondria dysfunction in human glioma U251 cells,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 376–388, 2009.
- D. Rovito, C. Giordano, D. Vizza, et al., “Omega-3 PUFA ethanolamines DHEA and EPEA induce autophagy through PPARgamma activation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 228, no. 6, pp. 1314–1322, 2012.
- K. Jing, K. S. Song, S. Shin et al., “Docosahexaenoic acid induces autophagy through p53/AMPK/mTOR signaling and promotes apoptosis in human cancer cells harboring wild-type p53,” Autophagy, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1348–1358, 2011.
- K. Lim, C. Han, Y. Dai, M. Shen, and T. Wu, “Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth through blocking β-catenin and cyclooxygenase-2,” Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 3046–3055, 2009.
- A. G. Carroll, H. J. Voeller, L. Sugars, and E. P. Gelmann, “p53 Oncogene mutations in three human prostate cancer cell lines,” Prostate, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 123–134, 1993.
- T. Kato, N. Kolenic, and R. S. Pardini, “Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a primary tumor suppressive omega-3 fatty acid, inhibits growth of colorectal cancer independent of p53 mutational status,” Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 178–187, 2007.
- L. Galluzzi, I. Vitale, J. M. Abrams et al., “Molecular definitions of cell death subroutines: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2012,” Cell Death and Differentiation, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 107–120, 2012.
- E. Fasano, S. Serini, E. Piccioni, et al., “DHA induces apoptosis by altering the expression and cellular location of GRP78 in colon cancer cell lines,” Biochim Biophys Acta, vol. 1822, no. 11, pp. 1762–1772, 2012.
- K. Lim, C. Han, L. Xu, K. Isse, A. J. Demetris, and T. Wu, “Cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostaglandin E2 activates β-catenin in human cholangiocarcinoma cells: evidence for inhibition of these signaling pathways by ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids,” Cancer Research, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 553–560, 2008.
- G. Calviello, F. Resci, S. Serini et al., “Docosahexaenoic acid induces proteasome-dependent degradation of β-catenin, down-regulation of survivin and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells not expressing COX-2,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 1202–1209, 2007.
- A. Giros, M. Grzybowski, V. R. Sohn et al., “Regulation of colorectal cancer cell apoptosis by the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic,” Cancer Prevention Research, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 732–742, 2009.
- P. A. Corsetto, G. Montorfano, S. Zava, I. E. Jovenitti, A. Cremona, and A. M. Rizzo, “Effects of n-3 PUFAs on breast cancer cells through their incorporation in plasma membrane,” Lipids in Health and Disease, vol. 10, article 73, 2011.
- G. Calviello, F. Di Nicuolo, S. Gragnoli et al., “N-3 PUFAs reduce VEGF expression in human colon cancer cells modulating the COX-2/PGE2 induced ERK-1 and -2 and HIF-1α induction pathway,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2303–2310, 2004.
- H. Gleissman, J. I. Johnsen, and P. Kogner, “Omega-3 fatty acids in cancer, the protectors of good and the killers of evil?” Experimental Cell Research, vol. 316, no. 8, pp. 1365–1373, 2010.
- H. Zand, A. Rhimipour, M. Bakhshayesh, M. Shafiee, I. Nour Mohammadi, and S. Salimi, “Involvement of PPAR-γ and p53 in DHA-induced apoptosis in Reh cells,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 304, no. 1-2, pp. 71–77, 2007.
- K. Jing and K. Lim, “Why is autophagy important in human diseases?” Experimental and Molecular Medicine, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 69–72, 2012.
- N. Mizushima and T. Yoshimori, “How to interpret LC3 immunoblotting,” Autophagy, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 542–545, 2007.
- Z. J. Yang, C. E. Chee, S. Huang, and F. A. Sinicrope, “The role of autophagy in cancer: therapeutic implications,” Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 1533–1541, 2011.
- A. Boveris and B. Chance, “The mitochondrial generation of hydrogen peroxide. General properties and effect of hyperbaric oxygen,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 134, no. 3, pp. 707–716, 1973.
- Y. Ng, R. Barhoumi, R. B. Tjalkens et al., “The role of docosahexaenoic acid in mediating mitochondrial membrane lipid oxidation and apoptosis in colonocytes,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 1914–1921, 2005.
- S. M. Watkins, L. C. Carter, and J. B. German, “Docosahexaenoic acid accumulates in cardiolipin and enhances HT-29 cell oxidant production,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 1583–1588, 1998.
- S. Schmidt, F. Stahl, K. O. Mutz, T. Scheper, A. Hahn, and J. P. Schuchardt, “Transcriptome-based identification of antioxidative gene expression after fish oil supplementation in normo- and dyslipidemic men,” Nutrition & Metabolism, vol. 9, article 45, 2012.
- D. Richard, K. Kefi, U. Barbe, P. Bausero, and F. Visioli, “Polyunsaturated fatty acids as antioxidants,” Pharmacological Research, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 451–455, 2008.
- M. Araseki, K. Yamamoto, and K. Miyashita, “Oxidative stability of polyunsaturated fatty acid in phosphatidylcholine liposomes,” Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, vol. 66, no. 12, pp. 2573–2577, 2002.
- T. M. Morgan, T. D. Koreckij, and E. Corey, “Targeted therapy for advanced prostate cancer: inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway,” Current Cancer Drug Targets, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 237–249, 2009.