Table 1: Clinical gene therapy trials for mesothelioma.

Phase studyVectorExpressed genePatient numberVirus titer used [reference]

Pilot Vaccinia Interleukin-26 Not reported [30]1
Pilot Ad IFN-α2b9 3 × 1011–1 × 1012 vp [33]2
I Ad HSV-TK 13
21
5 × 1010–5 × 1012 vp
1.5 × 1013–5 × 1013 vp [29]3
I Ad IFN- 8 9 × 1011–3 × 1012 vp [31]4
I Ad IFN- 10 3 × 1011–3 × 1012 vp [32]5

1Intratumoral injection. The transgene expression was observed despite antivaccinia antibody generated.
2Twice intrapleural injections of E1/E3-deleted Ad at 3-day interval. One case showed more than 50% tumor reduction which was judged with a radiographic assessment on day 64. vp: virus particle.
3A single intrapleural injection of either E1/E3-deleted or E1/E4-deleted Ad. Two long-term survivors (more than 6.5 years) were included in the E1/E4-deleted Ad-injected group.
4A single intrapleural injection of E1/E3-deleted Ad. Maximum tolerance dose was judged as 9 × 1011 vp. Polymerase chain reaction detected the viral shedding in serum up to day 4 and in pleural fluid up to day 42.
5Twice intrapleural injections of E1/E3-deleted Ad at 7-day interval. No maximum tolerance dose was reached. Neutralizing antibody was generated until day 7.