Table 3: Comparison of formulations with different concentrations of Pluronic L81 (data represent mean ± SD, ).

Pluronic L81 Concentration (% w/w)
01.225.45

ED (μg)170.69 ± 21.85**211.14 ± 9.63215.14 ± 11.55
FPF (%)49.63 ± 2.0050.72 ± 0.6933.20 ± 3.37*
FPD (μg)84.61 ± 10.19107.05 ± 3.5371.17 ± 3.79#
MMAD (μm)1.56 ± 0.05$3.70 ± 0.08$5.93 ± 0.49$
GSD 3.22 ± 0.312.00 ± 0.051.78 ± 0.07
VMD (μm)7.07 ± 0.148.39 ± 0.1111.04 ± 0.46*

ED: emitted dose, MMAD: mass median aerodynamic diameter, FPF: fine particle fraction, FPD: fine particle dose, and GSD: geometric standard deviation. ** (ANOVA/Tukey’s) 0% w/w Pluronic L81 versus 1.22 and 5.45% w/w Pluronic L81, * (ANOVA/Tukey’s) 5.45% w/w Pluronic L81 versus 0 and 1.22% w/w Pluronic L81, # (ANOVA/Tukey’s) 5.45% w/w Pluronic L81 versus 1.22% w/w Pluronic L81, and $ comparing all formulations.