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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 576486, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/576486
Research Article

CTLA-4 Expression and Polymorphisms in Lung Tissue of Patients with Diagnosed Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

1Department of General and Oncological Pulmonology, 1st Chair of Internal Diseases, Medical University of Lodz, Kopcińskiego 22, 90-153 Łódź, Poland
2Department of Molecular Bases of Medicine, 1st Chair of Internal Diseases, Medical University of Lodz, Pomorska 251, 92-213 Łódź, Poland
3Department of Pneumology and Allergology, 1st Chair of Internal Diseases, Medical University of Lodz, Kopcińskiego 22, 90-153 Łódź, Poland
4Department of Chest Surgery, General and Oncological Surgery University Hospital No. 2, Medical University of Lodz, Żeromskiego 113, 90-710 Łódź, Poland

Received 23 April 2013; Revised 19 June 2013; Accepted 23 June 2013

Academic Editor: Carlo Jose Freire de Oliveira

Copyright © 2013 Adam Antczak et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a potent immunoregulatory molecule that downregulates T-cell activation and thus influences the antitumor immune response. CTLA-4 polymorphisms are associated with various cancers, and CTLA-4 mRNA/protein increased expression is found in several tumor types. However, most of the studies are based on peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and much less is known about the relationship between CTLA-4 expression, especially gene expression, and its polymorphic variants in cancer tissue. In our study we assessed the distribution of CTLA-4 two polymorphisms (+49A/G and −318C/T), using TaqMan probes (rs231775 and rs5742909, resp.), and CTLA-4 gene expression in real-time PCR assay in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissue samples. The increased CTLA-4 expression was observed in the majority of NSCLC patients, and it was significantly correlated with TT genotype (−318C/T) and with tumor size (T2 versus T3 + T4). The presence of G allele and GG genotype in cancer tissue (+49A/G) was significantly associated with the increased NSCLC risk. Additionally, we compared genotype distributions in the corresponding tumor and blood samples and found statistically significant differences. The shift from one genotype in the blood to another in the tumor may confirm the complexity of gene functionality in cancer tissue.