About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 582358, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/582358
Research Article

Gene Entropy-Fractal Dimension Informatics with Application to Mouse-Human Translational Medicine

Queensborough Community College of CUNY, 222-05 56th Avenve Bayside, NY 11364, USA

Received 6 October 2012; Accepted 5 February 2013

Academic Editor: Tun-Wen Pai

Copyright © 2013 T. Holden et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. Tremberger Jr., S. Dehipawala, E. Cheung et al., “Fractal analysis of FOXP2 regulated accelerated conserved non-coding sequences in human fetal brain,” Engineering and Technology, no. 67, pp. 881–886, 2012.
  2. A. C. Ribeiro, S. Musatov, A. Shteyler et al., “siRNA silencing of estrogen receptor-α expression specifically in medial preoptic area neurons abolishes maternal care in female mice,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 109, no. 40, pp. 16324–16329, 2012.
  3. L. B. Gordon, M. E. Kleinmana, D. T. Miller, et al., “Clinical trial of a farnesyltransferase inhibitor in children with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 109, no. 41, pp. 16666–16671, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. C. Y. Lin, J. Lovén, P. B. Rahl et al., “Transcriptional amplification in tumor cells with elevated c-Myc,” Cell, vol. 151, no. 1, pp. 56–67, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. Y. Yin, A. Seifert, J. S. Chua, J.-F. Maure, F. Golebiowski, and R. T. Hay, “SUMO-targeted ubiquitin E3 ligase RNF4 is required for the response of human cells to DNA damage,” Genes & Development, vol. 26, pp. 1196–1208, 2012.
  6. S. D. McAllister, R. Murase, R. T. Christian et al., “Pathways mediating the effects of cannabidiol on the reduction of breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 37–47, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Nomikos, K. Swann, and F. A. Lai, “Starting a new life: sperm PLC-zeta mobilizes the Ca2+ signal that induces egg activation and embryo development: an essential phospholipase C with implications for male infertility,” Bioessays, vol. 34, pp. 126–134, 2012.
  8. K. S. Pollard, S. R. Salama, N. Lambert et al., “An RNA gene expressed during cortical development evolved rapidly in humans,” Nature, vol. 443, no. 7108, pp. 167–172, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. “16S rRNA Human MT-RNR2 gene sequence,” mouse gene/17725, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/4550.
  10. “ID1 Human gene sequence,” mouse gene/15901, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/3397.
  11. “LMNA Human gene sequence,” mouse gene/16905, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/4000.
  12. “PLCZ1 Human gene sequence,” mouse gene/114875, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/89869.
  13. HAR1 Ref 8 Supplement Figure S2, pp. 44.
  14. “RNF4 Human gene sequence,” mouse gene/19822, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/6047.
  15. “ESR1Human gene sequence,” mouse gene/13982, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/2099.
  16. “Myc Human gene sequence,” mouse gene/17869, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/4609.
  17. “DYS14 Human gene sequence,” Approximately 35 copies of this gene are present in humans, but only a single, nonfunctional orthologous gene is found in mouse, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/7258.
  18. “p53 Human gene sequence,” mouse gene/22059, wolf/dog gene/403869, zebra fish gene/30590, rat gene/24842, Pan troglodytes (chimp) gene/455214, bovine gene/281542, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/7157.
  19. T. Higuchi, “Approach to an irregular time series on the basis of the fractal theory,” Physica D, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 277–283, 1988. View at Scopus
  20. R. F. Voss, “Evolution of long-range fractal correlations and 1/f noise in DNA base sequences,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 68, no. 25, pp. 3805–3808, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P. Cristea, “An efficient algorithm for measuring fractal dimension of complex sequences,” in Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Approaches in Fractal Analysis (IAFA '03), pp. 121–124, Bucharest, Romania, May 2003.
  22. W. F. N. Chan, C. Gurnot, T. J. Montine, J. A. Sonnen, K. A. Guthrie, and J. L. Nelson, “Male microchimerism in the human female brain,” PLoS One, vol. 7, no. 9, Article ID e45592, 2012.
  23. A. G. Jegga, A. Inga, D. Menendez, B. J. Aronow, and M. A. Resnick, “Functional evolution of the p53 regulatory network through its target response elements,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 944–949, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. Davies, L. A. Demetrius, and J. A. Tuszynski, “Implications of quantum metabolism and natural selection for the origin of cancer cells and tumor progression,” AIP Advances, vol. 2, Article ID 011101, 2012.
  25. H. R. Christofk, M. G. Vander Heiden, M. H. Harris et al., “The M2 splice isoform of pyruvate kinase is important for cancer metabolism and tumour growth,” Nature, vol. 452, no. 7184, pp. 230–233, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Cattani, “Fractals and hidden symmetries in DNA,” Mathematical Problems in Engineering, vol. 2010, Article ID 507056, 31 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. C. Cattani, G. Pierro, and G. Altieri, “Entropy and multifractality for the myeloma multiple TET 2 gene,” Mathematical Problems in Engineering, vol. 2012, Article ID 193761, 14 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. C. Cattani, “Complex representation of DNA sequences,” Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol. 13, pp. 528–537, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. C. Cattani, “On the existence of wavelet symmetries in archaea DNA,” Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 673934, 21 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. G. Pierro, “Sequence complexity of chromosome 3 in caenorhabditis elegans,” Advances in Bioinformatics, vol. 2012, Article ID 287486, 12 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. S. S. Hassan, P. P. Choudhury, B. S. Dayasagar, S. Chakraborty, R. Guha, and A. Goswami, “Understanding Genomic Evolution of Olfactory Receptors through Fractal and Mathematical Morphology,” Nature Precedings, 2011, http://precedings.nature.com/documents/5674/version/1.
  32. S. Arniker and H. Kwan, “Advanced numerical representation of DNA sequences,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Bioscience, Biochemistry and Bioinformatics (IPCBEE '12), vol. 3, no. 1, ACSIT Press, Singapoore, 2012.
  33. M. B. Gerstein, A. Kundaje, M. Hariharan, et al., “Architecture of the human regulatory network derived from ENCODE data,” Nature, vol. 489, pp. 91–100, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. D. R. Lovley, T. Ueki T, T. Zhang, et al., “Geobacter: the microbe electric's physiology, ecology, and practical applications,” Advances in Microbial Physiology, vol. 59, pp. 1–100, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. G. Panitchayangkoona, D. V. Voronine, D. Abramavicius et al., “Direct evidence of quantum transport in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 108, pp. 20908–20912, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. C. Smyth, F. Fassioli, and G. D. Scholes, “Measures and implications of electronic coherence in photosynthetic light-harvesting,” Philosophical Transactions A, vol. 370, pp. 3728–3749, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. A. Thilagam, “Multipartite entanglement in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) pigment-protein complex,” Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 136, Article ID 175104, 14 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar