About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 582768, 20 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/582768
Review Article

Polymorphisms in the Human Cytochrome P450 and Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase: Susceptibility to Head and Neck Cancers

1Research Unit on Toxicology and Environment, Sfax University, 3018 Sfax, Tunisia
2Bioinformatics Unit, Centre of Biotechnology of Sfax, Sfax University, 3018 Sfax, Tunisia
3Biomedical Genomics and Oncogenetics Laboratory LR11IPT05, University of Tunis El Manar, 1002 Tunis, Tunisia

Received 19 April 2013; Revised 25 June 2013; Accepted 24 July 2013

Academic Editor: Li Jiao

Copyright © 2013 Rim Khlifi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. F. Gallegos-Hernández, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck mucosa,” Cirugia y Cirujanos, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 167–173, 2006.
  2. N. Penel, E. Y. Amela, Y. Mallet et al., “A simple predictive model for postoperative mortality after head and neck cancer surgery with opening of mucosa,” Oral Oncology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 174–180, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. L. Mao, W. K. Hong, and V. A. Papadimitrakopoulou, “Focus on head and neck cancer,” Cancer Cell, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 311–316, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. E. M. Sturgis, Q. Wei, and M. R. Spitz, “Descriptive epidemiology and risk factors for head and neck cancer,” Seminars in Oncology, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 726–733, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. A. Frank, “Genetic variation in cancer predisposition: mutational decay of a robust genetic control network,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 21, pp. 8061–8065, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. P. Vineis, M. Alavanja, P. Buffler et al., “Tobacco and cancer: recent epidemiological evidence,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 99–106, 2004. View at Scopus
  7. H. Viswanathan and J. A. Wilson, “Alcohol—the neglected risk factor in head and neck cancer,” Clinical Otolaryngology and Allied Sciences, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 295–300, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. P. Hakim, “Head and neck cancer—the Indian scene,” International Congress Series, vol. 1240, pp. 973–984, 2003.
  9. P. Brennan and P. Boffetta, “Mechanistic considerations in the molecular epidemiology of head and neck cancer,” IARC Scientific Publications, no. 157, pp. 393–414, 2004. View at Scopus
  10. W. Y. Huang, A. F. Olshan, S. M. Schwartz et al., “Selected genetic polymorphisms in MGMT, XRCC1, XPD, and XRCC3 and risk of head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 1747–1753, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Ingelman-Sundberg, “Genetic variability in susceptibility and response to toxicants,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 120, no. 1–3, pp. 259–268, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. W. Garavello, R. Foschi, R. Talamini et al., “Family history and the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 122, no. 8, pp. 1827–1831, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. Negri, P. Boffetta, J. Berthiller et al., “Family history of cancer: pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 394–401, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Báez, “Genetic and environmental factors in head and neck cancer genesis,” Journal of Environmental Science and Health C, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 174–200, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. A. F. Olshan, M. C. Weissler, M. A. Watson, and D. A. Bell, “GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, CYP1A1, and NAT1 polymorphisms, tobacco use, and the risk of head and neck cancer,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 185–191, 2000. View at Scopus
  16. G. Matullo, D. Palli, M. Peluso et al., “XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD gene polymorphisms, smoking and 32P-DNA adducts in a sample of healthy subjects,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1437–1445, 2001. View at Scopus
  17. N. Jourenkova, M. Reinikainen, C. Bouchardy, P. Dayer, S. Benhamou, and A. Hirvonen, “Larynx cancer risk in relation to glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 genotypes and tobacco smoking,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 19–23, 1998. View at Scopus
  18. H. Bartsch, U. Nair, A. Risch, M. Rojas, H. Wikman, and K. Alexandrov, “Genetic polymorphism of CYP genes, alone or in combination, as a risk modifier of tobacco-related cancers,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 3–28, 2000. View at Scopus
  19. T. T. Sreelekha, K. Ramadas, M. Pandey, G. Thomas, K. R. Nalinakumari, and M. R. Pillai, “Genetic polymorphism of CYP1A1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes in Indian oral cancer,” Oral Oncology, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 593–598, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. P. Shah, A. P. Singh, M. Singh et al., “Interaction of cytochrome P4501A1 genotypes with other risk factors and susceptibility to lung cancer,” Mutation Research, vol. 639, no. 1-2, pp. 1–10, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. P. Singh, P. P. Shah, N. Mathur, J. T. M. Buters, M. C. Pant, and D. Parmar, “Genetic polymorphisms in Cytochrome P4501B1 and susceptibility to Head and Neck Cancer,” Mutation Research, vol. 639, no. 1-2, pp. 11–19, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. S. Yadav, M. Ruwali, P. P. Shah et al., “Association of poor metabolizers of cytochrome P450 2C19 with head and neck cancer and poor treatment response,” Mutation Research, vol. 644, no. 1-2, pp. 31–37, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. P. Singh, P. P. Shah, M. Ruwali, N. Mathur, M. C. Pant, and D. Parmar, “Polymorphism in cytochrome P4501A1 is significantly associated with head and neck cancer risk,” Cancer Investigation, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 869–876, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. S. Hecht, “Biochemistry, biology, and carcinogenicity of tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines,” Chemical Research in Toxicology, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 559–603, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. S. Hecht, “Tobacco carcinogens, their biomarkers and tobacco-induced cancer,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 733–744, 2003. View at Scopus
  26. Y. Ko, J. Abel, V. Harth et al., “Association of CYP1B1 codon 432 mutant allele in head and neck squamous cell cancer is reflected by somatic mutations of p53 in tumor tissue,” Cancer Research, vol. 61, no. 11, pp. 4398–4404, 2001. View at Scopus
  27. W. Jelski and M. Szmitkowski, “Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in the cancer diseases,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 395, no. 1-2, pp. 1–5, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. Matthias, U. Bockmühl, V. Jahnke et al., “Polymorphism in cytochrome P450 CYP2D6, CYP1A1, CYP2E1 and glutathione S-transferase, GSTM1, GSTM3, GSTT1 and susceptibility to tobacco-related cancers: studies in upper aerodigestive tract cancers,” Pharmacogenetics, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 91–100, 1998. View at Scopus
  29. S. F. Worrall, M. Corrigan, A. High et al., “Susceptibility and outcome in oral cancer: preliminary data showing an association with polymorphism in cytochrome P450 CYP2D6,” Pharmacogenetics, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 433–439, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. J. Roberts-Thomson, M. E. McManus, R. H. Tukey, F. F. Gonzalez, and G. M. Holder, “The catalytic activity of four expressed human cytochrome P450s towards benzo[a]pyrene and the isomers of its proximate carcinogen,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 192, no. 3, pp. 1373–1379, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. P. Butler, G. B. Post, P. J. Lioy, and J. M. Waldman, “Assessment of carcinogenic risk from personal exposure to benzo(a)pyrene in the Total Human Environmental Exposure Study (THEES),” Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 970–977, 1993. View at Scopus
  32. J. P. Whitlock Jr., S. T. Okino, L. Dong et al., “Induction of cytochrome P4501A1: a model for analyzing mammalian gene transcription,” FASEB Journal, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 809–818, 1996. View at Scopus
  33. S. H. Cherng, P. Lin, J. L. Yang, S. L. Hsu, and H. Lee, “Benzo[g,h,i]perylene synergistically transactivates benzo[a]pyrene-induced CYP1A1 gene expression by aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 170, no. 1, pp. 63–68, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. IARC, “Polynuclear aromatic compounds, chemical, environmental and experimental data,” in Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, vol. 32, part 1, IARC Scientific Publications, Lyon, France, 1983.
  35. K. Kawajiri, CYP1A1, vol. 148, IARC Scientific Publications, Lyon, France, 1999.
  36. D. W. Nebert, T. P. Dalton, A. B. Okey, and F. J. Gonzalez, “Role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated induction of the CYP1 enzymes in environmental toxicity and cancer,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 279, no. 23, pp. 23847–23850, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. C. Canova, L. Richiardi, F. Merletti et al., “Alcohol, tobacco and genetic susceptibility in relation to cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract in northern Italy,” Tumori, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. N. S. Nagaraj, S. Beckers, J. K. Mensah, S. Waigel, N. Vigneswaran, and W. Zacharias, “Cigarette smoke condensate induces cytochromes P450 and aldo-keto reductases in oral cancer cells,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 165, no. 2, pp. 182–194, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. C. Chi, K. Appleton, J. B. Henriod et al., “Differential induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 by benzo[a]pyrene in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and by tobacco smoking in oral mucosa,” Oral Oncology, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 980–985, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. X. Wen and T. Walle, “Preferential induction of CYP1B1 by benzo[a]pyrene in human oral epithelial cells: impact on DNA adduct formation and prevention by polyphenols,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 1774–1781, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. K. Kawajiri, H. Eguchi, K. Nakachi, T. Sekiya, and M. Yamamoto, “Association of CYP1A1 germ line polymorphisms with mutations of the p53 gene in lung cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 72–76, 1996. View at Scopus
  42. S. F. Zhou, J. P. Liu, and B. Chowbay, “Polymorphism of human cytochrome P450 enzymes and its clinical impact,” Drug Metabolism Reviews, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 89–295, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. K. Kawajiri, K. Nakachi, K. Imai, J. Watanabe, and S. Hayashi, “The CYP1A1 gene and cancer susceptibility,” Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 77–87, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. X. Xu, K. T. Kelsey, J. K. Wiencke, J. C. Wain, and D. C. Christiani, “Cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 687–692, 1996. View at Scopus
  45. K. Nakachi, K. Imai, S. I. Hayashi, and K. Kawajiri, “Polymorphisms of the CYP1A1 and glutathione S-transferase genes associated with susceptibility to lung cancer in relation to cigarette dose in a Japanese population,” Cancer Research, vol. 53, no. 13, pp. 2994–2999, 1993. View at Scopus
  46. I. Cascorbi, J. Brockmoller, and I. Roots, “A C4887A polymorphism in exon 7 of human CYP1A1: population frequency, mutation linkages, and impact on lung cancer susceptibility,” Cancer Research, vol. 56, no. 21, pp. 4965–4969, 1996. View at Scopus
  47. J. Y. Park, J. E. Muscat, Q. Ren et al., “CYP1A1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms and oral cancer risk,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 791–797, 1997. View at Scopus
  48. N. Ishibe, S. E. Hankinson, G. A. Colditz et al., “Cigarette smoking, cytochrome P450 1A1 polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study,” Cancer Research, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 667–671, 1998. View at Scopus
  49. N. Ishibe, J. K. Wiencke, Z. F. Zuo, A. McMillan, M. Spitz, and K. T. Kelsey, “Susceptibility to lung cancer in light smokers associated with CYP1A1 polymorphisms in Mexican- and African-Americans,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 1075–1080, 1997. View at Scopus
  50. L. Quiñones, F. Berthou, N. Varela, B. Simon, L. Gil, and D. Lucas, “Ethnic susceptibility to lung cancer: differences in CYP2E1, CYP1A1 and GSTM1 genetic polymorphisms between French Caucasian and Chilean populations,” Cancer Letters, vol. 141, no. 1-2, pp. 167–171, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. Garte, “The role of ethnicity in cancer susceptibility gene polymorphisms: the example of CYP1A1,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1329–1332, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. H. Inoue, C. Kiyohara, T. Marugame et al., “Cigarette smoking, CYP1A1 MspI and GSTM1 genotypes, and colorectal adenomas,” Cancer Research, vol. 60, no. 14, pp. 3749–3752, 2000. View at Scopus
  53. C. F. S. Marques, S. Koifman, R. J. Koifman, P. Boffetta, P. Brennan, and A. Hatagima, “Influence of CYP1A1, CYP2E1, GSTM3 and NAT2 genetic polymorphisms in oral cancer susceptibility: results from a case-control study in Rio de Janeiro,” Oral Oncology, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 632–637, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. Sato, T. Sato, T. Izumo, and T. Amagasa, “Genetically high susceptibility to oral squamous cell carcinoma in terms of combined genotyping of CYP1A1 and GSTM1 genes,” Oral Oncology, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 267–271, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. S. Morita, M. Yano, T. Tsujinaka et al., “Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes and susceptibility to head-and-neck squamous-cell carcinoma,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 80, no. 5, pp. 685–688, 1999.
  56. M. Gajecka, M. Rydzanicz, R. Jaskula-Sztul, M. Kujawski, W. Szyfter, and K. Szyfter, “CYP1A1, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, NAT2, GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms or their combinations are associated with the increased risk of the laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma,” Mutation Research, vol. 574, no. 1-2, pp. 112–123, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. E. Reszka, P. Czekaj, J. Adamska, and W. Wasowicz, “Relevance of glutathione S-transferase M1 and cytochrome P450 1A1 genetic polymorphisms to the development of head and neck cancers,” Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 1090–1096, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. R. Amtha, C. S. Ching, R. Zain et al., “GSTM1, GSTT1 and CYP1A1 polymorphisms and risk of oral cancer: a case-control study in Jakarta, Indonesia,” Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 21–26, 2009. View at Scopus
  59. L. Liu, G. Wu, F. Xue et al., “Functional CYP1A1 genetic variants, alone and in combination with smoking, contribute to development of head and neck cancers,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 2143–2151, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. A. Bale, D. Nebert, and O. McBride, “Subchromosomal localization of the dioxin-inducible P-450 locus (CYP1) and description of two RFLPs detected with a 3′ P-450 cDNA probe,” Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics, vol. 46, pp. 574–575, 1987.
  61. N. Drakoulis, I. Cascorbi, J. Brockmoller, C. R. Gross, and I. Roots, “Polymorphisms in the human CYP1A1 gene as susceptibility factors for lung cancer: exon-7 mutation (4889 A to G), and a T to C mutation in the 3′-flanking region,” Clinical Investigator, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 240–248, 1994. View at Scopus
  62. M. Sato, T. Sato, T. Izumo, and T. Amagasa, “Genetic polymorphism of drug-metabolizing enzymes and susceptibility to oral cancer,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 1927–1931, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. I. H. Cha, J. Y. Park, W. Y. Chung, M. A. Choi, H. J. Kim, and K. K. Park, “Polymorphisms of CYP1A1 and GSTM1 genes and susceptibility to oral cancer,” Yonsei Medical Journal, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 233–239, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. D. Anantharaman, P. M. Chaubal, S. Kannan, R. A. Bhisey, and M. B. Mahimkar, “Susceptibility to oral cancer by genetic polymorphisms at CYP1A1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 loci among Indians: tobacco exposure as a risk modulator,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1455–1462, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. S. S. Sam, V. Thomas, K. S. Reddy, G. Surianarayanan, and A. Chandrasekaran, “Gene-environment interactions associated with CYP1A1 MspI and GST polymorphisms and the risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancers in an Indian population,” Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, vol. 136, no. 6, pp. 945–951, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. S. S. Sam, V. Thomas, K. S. Reddy, G. Surianarayanan, and A. Chandrasekaran, “CYP1A1 polymorphisms and the risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancers in an Indian population,” Head and Neck, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1566–1574, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. E. H. R. Olivieri, S. D. da Silva, F. F. Mendonça et al., “CYP1A2*1C, CYP2E1*5B, and GSTM1 polymorphisms are predictors of risk and poor outcome in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients,” Oral Oncology, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. e73–e79, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. G. J. Figaro Gattá, M. B. de Carvalho, M. S. Siraque et al., “Genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP2E1, GSTM-1, and GSTT1 associated with head and neck cancer,” Head and Neck, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 819–826, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. K. Tanimoto, S. I. Hayashi, K. Yoshiga, and T. Ichikawa, “Polymorphisms of the CYP1A1 and GSTM1 gene involved in oral squamous cell carcinoma in association with a cigarette dose,” Oral Oncology, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 191–196, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. W. L. Zhuo, Y. Wang, X. L. Zhuo, B. Zhu, Y. Zhu, and Z. T. Chen, “Polymorphisms of CYP1A1 and GSTM1 and laryngeal cancer risk: evidence-based meta-analyses,” Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, vol. 135, no. 8, pp. 1081–1090, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. J. Tai, M. Yang, X. Ni et al., “Genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 genes are associated with an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx in a Chinese population,” Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics, vol. 196, no. 1, pp. 76–82, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. M. B. Oude Ophuis, E. M. Van Lieshout, H. M. Roelofs, W. H. Peters, and J. J. Manni, “Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 and cytochrome P4501A1 polymorphism in relation to the risk for benign and malignant head and neck lesions,” Cancer, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 936–943, 1998.
  73. W. P. Bennett, M. C. R. Alavanja, B. Blomeke et al., “Environmental tobacco smoke, genetic susceptibility, and risk of lung cancer in never-smoking women,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 91, no. 23, pp. 2009–2014, 1999. View at Scopus
  74. S. Chatterjee, S. Chakrabarti, B. Sengupta et al., “Prevalence of CYP1A1 and GST polymorphisms in the population of Northeastern India and susceptibility of oral cancer,” Oncology Research, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 397–403, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. S. Gronau, D. Koenig-Greger, M. Jerg, and H. Riechelmann, “Gene polymorphisms in detoxification enzymes as susceptibility factor for head and neck cancer?” Otolaryngology, vol. 128, no. 5, pp. 674–680, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. V. Jahnke, C. Matthias, A. Fryer, and R. Strange, “Glutathione S-transferase and cytochrome-P-450 polymorphism as risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx,” American Journal of Surgery, vol. 172, no. 6, pp. 671–673, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. Y. J. Cheng, Y. C. Chien, A. Hildesheim et al., “No association between genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, NAT2, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Taiwan,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 179–180, 2003. View at Scopus
  78. Y. F. Xu, Q. H. Pan, C. Cui et al., “Association of nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk with cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms,” Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 586–590, 2009. View at Scopus
  79. K. Sabitha, M. Vishnuvardhan Reddy, and K. Jamil, “Smoking related risk involved in individuals carrying genetic variants of CYP1A1 gene in head and neck cancer,” Cancer Epidemiology, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 587–592, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. S. D. Spivack, G. J. Hurteau, R. Jain et al., “Gene-environment interaction signatures by quantitative mRNA profiling in exfoliated buccal mucosal cells,” Cancer Research, vol. 64, no. 18, pp. 6805–6813, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. C. B. Ambrosone, J. L. Freudenheim, S. Graham et al., “Cytochrome P4501A1 and glutathione S-transferase (M1) genetic polymorphisms and postmenopausal breast cancer risk,” Cancer Research, vol. 55, no. 16, pp. 3483–3485, 1995. View at Scopus
  82. L. R. Bailey, N. Roodi, C. S. Verrier, C. J. Yee, W. D. Dupont, and F. F. Parl, “Breast cancer and CYPIA1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 polymorphisms: evidence of a lack of association in Caucasians and African Americans,” Cancer Research, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 65–70, 1998. View at Scopus
  83. E. Taioli, H. L. Bradlow, S. V. Garbers et al., “Role of estradiol metabolism and CYP1A1 polymorphisms in breast cancer risk,” Cancer Detection and Prevention, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 232–237, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. V. M. Basham, P. D. P. Pharoah, C. S. Healey et al., “Polymorphisms in CYP1A1 and smoking: no association with breast cancer risk,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 1797–1800, 2001. View at Scopus
  85. N. M. Cury, A. Russo, A. L. S. Galbiatti et al., “Polymorphisms of the CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 genes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma risk,” Molecular Biology Reports, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 1055–1063, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. L. Varela-Lema, E. Taioli, A. Ruano-Ravina et al., “Meta-analysis and pooled analysis of GSTM1 and CYP1A1 polymorphisms and oral and pharyngeal cancers: a HuGE-GSEC review,” Genetics in Medicine, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 369–384, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. N. Masood, F. A. Malik, and M. A. Kayani, “Expression of xenobiotic metabolizing genes in head and neck cancer tissues,” Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 377–382, 2011. View at Scopus
  88. R. Sharma, M. Ahuja, N. K. Panda, and M. Khullar, “Interactions among genetic variants in tobacco metabolizing genes and smoking are associated with head and neck cancer susceptibility in north Indians,” DNA and Cell Biology, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 611–616, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. R. Sharma, N. K. Panda, and M. Khullar, “Hypermethylation of carcinogen metabolism genes, CYP1A1, CYP2A13 and GSTM1 genes in head and neck cancer,” Oral Diseases, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 668–673, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. S. S. Sam, V. Thomas, K. S. Reddy, G. Surianarayanan, and A. Chandrasekaran, “Gene-gene interactions of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporter protein in the risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancers among Indians,” Cancer Epidemiology, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 626–633, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. C. Vaury, R. Laine, P. Noguiez et al., “Human glutathione S-transferase M1 null genotype is associated with a high inducibility of cytochrome P450 1A1 gene transcription,” Cancer Research, vol. 55, no. 23, pp. 5520–5523, 1995. View at Scopus
  92. T. R. Sutter, Y. M. Tang, C. L. Hayes et al., “Complete cDNA sequence of a human dioxin-inducible mRNA identifies a new gene subfamily of cytochrome P450 that maps to chromosome 2,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 269, no. 18, pp. 13092–13099, 1994. View at Scopus
  93. Y. M. Tang, Y. Y. P. Wo, J. Stewart et al., “Isolation and characterization of the human cytochrome p450 CYP1B1 gene,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 271, no. 45, pp. 28324–28330, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. G. I. Murray, W. T. Melvin, W. F. Greenlee, and M. D. Burke, “Regulation, function, and tissue-specific expression of cytochrome P450 CYP1B1,” Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 41, pp. 297–316, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. X. Wen and T. Walle, “Cytochrome P450 1B1, a novel chemopreventive target for benzo[a]pyrene-initiated human esophageal cancer,” Cancer Letters, vol. 246, no. 1-2, pp. 109–114, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. M. C. E. McFadyen, S. Breeman, S. Payne et al., “Immunohistochemical localization of cytochrome P450 CYP1B1 in breast cancer with monoclonal antibodies specific for CYP1B1,” Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry, vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 1457–1464, 1999. View at Scopus
  97. T. M. Sissung, D. K. Price, A. Sparreboom, and W. D. Figg, “Pharmacogenetics and regulation of human cytochrome P450 1B1: implications in hormone-mediated tumor metabolism and a novel target for therapeutic intervention,” Molecular Cancer Research, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 135–150, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. S. Bandiera, S. Weidlich, V. Harth, P. Broede, Y. Ko, and T. Friedberg, “Proteasomal degradation of human CYP1B1: effect of the Asn453Ser polymorphism on the post-translational regulation of CYP1B1 expression,” Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 435–443, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. T. Sliwinski, P. Sitarek, T. Stetkiewicz, A. Sobczuk, and J. Blasiak, “Polymorphism of the ERα and CYP1B1 genes in endometrial cancer in a Polish subpopulation,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 311–317, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. I. Stoilov, A. N. Akarsu, I. Alozie et al., “Sequence analysis and homology modeling suggest that primary congenital glaucoma on 2p21 results from mutations disrupting either the hinge region or the conserved core structures of cytochrome P4501B1,” American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 573–584, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. E. Aklillu, M. Oscarson, M. Hidestrand, B. Leidvik, C. Otter, and M. Ingelman-Sundberg, “Functional analysis of six different polymorphic CYP1B1 enzyme variants found in an ethiopian population,” Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 586–594, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. P. H. Roos and H. M. Bolt, “Cytochrome P450 interactions in human cancers: new aspects considering CYP1B1,” Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 187–202, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. T. Shimada, J. Watanabe, K. Inoue, F. P. Guengerich, and E. M. J. Gillam, “Specificity of 17β-oestradiol and benzo[a]pyrene oxidation by polymorphic human cytochrome P4501B1 variants substituted at residues 48, 119 and 432,” Xenobiotica, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 163–176, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. J. S. Mammen, G. S. Pittman, Y. Li et al., “Single amino acid mutations, but not common polymorphisms, decrease the activity of CYP1B1 against (-)benzo[a]pyrene-7R-trans-7,8-dihydrodiol,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1247–1255, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. R. Thier, T. Brüning, P. H. Roos, and H. M. Bolt, “Cytochrome p450 1b1, a new keystone in gene-environment interactions related to human head and neck cancer?” Archives of Toxicology, vol. 76, no. 5-6, pp. 249–256, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. G. Li, Z. Liu, E. M. Sturgis, R. M. Chamberlain, M. R. Spitz, and Q. Wei, “CYP2E1 G1532C, NQO1 Pro187Ser, and CYP1B1 Val432Leu polymorphisms are not associated with risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 1034–1036, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. M. Sasaki, Y. Tanaka, M. Kaneuchi, N. Sakuragi, and R. Dahiya, “Alleles of polymorphic sites that correspond to hyperactive variants of CYP1B1 protein are significantly less frequent in Japanese as compared to American and German populations,” Human Mutation, vol. 21, no. 6, p. 652, 2003. View at Scopus
  108. C. J. Hopfer, M. C. Stallings, and J. K. Hewitt, “Common genetic and environmental vulnerability for alcohol and tobacco use in a volunteer sample of older female twins,” Journal of Studies on Alcohol, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 717–723, 2001. View at Scopus
  109. IARC, “Alcohol drinking. Biological data relevant to the evaluation of carcinogenic risk to humans,” IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 44, pp. 101–152, 1988.
  110. A. J. Wight and G. R. Ogden, “Possible mechanisms by which alcohol may influence the development of oral cancer—a review,” Oral Oncology, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 441–447, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. V. A. Kobliakov, A. V. Vaiman, L. N. Pylev, and L. A. Vasil'eva, “Expression of mRNA for several enzymes of xenobiotic detoxification in normal and spontaneously transformed mesothelial cells and mesothelioma cells of rats,” Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 141, no. 3, pp. 353–356, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. Y. L. Cheung, A. C. Kerr, M. C. E. McFadyen, W. T. Melvin, and G. I. Murray, “Differential expression of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1 in human kidney tumours,” Cancer Letters, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 199–205, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. V. Muthusamy, S. Duraisamy, C. M. Bradbury et al., “Epigenetic silencing of novel tumor suppressors in malignant melanoma,” Cancer Research, vol. 66, no. 23, pp. 11187–11193, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. T. Tokizane, H. Shiina, M. Igawa et al., “Cytochrome P450 1B1 is overexpressed and regulated by hypomethylation in prostate cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 11, no. 16, pp. 5793–5801, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. G. I. Murray, M. C. Taylor, M. C. E. McFadyen et al., “Tumor-specific expression of cytochrome P450 CYP1B1,” Cancer Research, vol. 57, no. 14, pp. 3026–3031, 1997. View at Scopus
  116. C. R. M. Rieder, D. B. Ramsden, and A. C. Williams, “Cytochrome P450 1B1 mRNA in the human central nervous system,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 138–142, 1998. View at Scopus
  117. J. L. Schwartz, S. Panda, C. Beam, L. E. Bach, and G. R. Adami, “RNA from brush oral cytology to measure squamous cell carcinoma gene expression,” Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 70–77, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. A. Kolokythas, J. L. Schwartz, K. B. Pytynia et al., “Analysis of RNA from brush cytology detects changes in B2M, CYP1B1 and KRT17 levels with OSCC in tobacco users,” Oral Oncology, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 532–536, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. S. Pradhan, M. N. Nagashri, K. S. Gopinath, and A. Kumar, “Expression profiling of CYP1B1 in Oral Squamous cell Carcinoma: counterintuitive downregulation in tumors,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 11, Article ID e27914, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. E. G. Shatalova, A. J. P. Klein-Szanto, K. Devarajan, E. Cukierman, and M. L. Clapper, “Estrogen and cytochrome P450 1B1 contribute to both early- and late-stage head and neck carcinogenesis,” Cancer Prevention Research, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 107–115, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. J. O. Boyle, Z. H. Gümüş, A. Kacker et al., “Effects of cigarette smoke on the human oral mucosal transcriptome,” Cancer Prevention Research, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 266–278, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. P. G. Sacks, Z. L. Zhao, W. Kosinska, K. E. Fleisher, T. Gordon, and J. B. Guttenplan, “Concentration dependent effects of tobacco particulates from different types of cigarettes on expression of drug metabolizing proteins, and benzo(a)pyrene metabolism in primary normal human oral epithelial cells,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 2348–2355, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. H. K. Kroemer and M. Eichelbaum, ““It's the genes, stupid”. Molecular bases and clinical consequences of genetic cytochrome P450 2D6 polymorphism,” Life Sciences, vol. 56, no. 26, pp. 2285–2298, 1995. View at Scopus
  124. C. Sachse, J. Brockmöller, S. Bauer, and I. Roots, “Cytochrome P450 2D6 variants in a Caucasian population: allele frequencies and phenotypic consequences,” American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 284–295, 1997. View at Scopus
  125. W. L. West, E. M. Knight, S. Pradhan, and T. S. Hinds, “Interpatient variability: genetic predisposition and other genetic factors,” Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 635–648, 1997. View at Scopus
  126. S. Cholerton, A. Arpanahi, N. McCracken et al., “Poor metabolisers of nicotine and CYP2D6 polymorphism,” Lancet, vol. 343, no. 8888, pp. 62–63, 1994. View at Scopus
  127. M. J. de Groot and N. P. E. Vermeulen, “Modeling the active sites of cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases, two of the most important biotransformation enzymes,” Drug Metabolism Reviews, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 747–799, 1997. View at Scopus
  128. M. H. Heim and U. A. Meyer, “Evolution of a highly polymorphic human cytochrome P450 gene cluster: CYP2D6,” Genomics, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 49–58, 1992. View at Scopus
  129. M. Garcia-Barcelo, L. W. Chow, H. F. K. Chiu et al., “Genetic analysis of the CYP2D6 locus in a Hong Kong Chinese population,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 18–23, 2000. View at Scopus
  130. L. Ji, S. Pan, J. Marti-Jaun, E. Hänseler, K. Rentsch, and M. Hersberger, “Single-step assays to analyze CYP2D6 gene polymorphisms in asians: allele frequencies and a novel *14B allele in mainland Chinese,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 983–988, 2002. View at Scopus
  131. A. Gaedigk, A. Bhathena, L. Ndjountché et al., “Identification and characterization of novel sequence variations in the cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6) gene in African Americans,” Pharmacogenomics Journal, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 173–182, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. L. Bertilsson, M. L. Dahl, P. Dalén, and A. Al-Shurbaji, “Molecular genetics of CYP2D6: clinical relevance with focus on psychotropic drugs,” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 111–122, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. M. V. González, V. Alvarez, M. F. Pello, M. J. Menéndez, C. Suárez, and E. Coto, “Genetic polymorphism of N-acetyltransferase-2, glutathione S-transferase-M1, and cytochromes P450IIE1 and P450IID6 in the susceptibility to head and neck cancer,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 294–298, 1998. View at Scopus
  134. C. Matthias, V. Jahnke, P. W. Jones et al., “Cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase, and cytochrome P450 genotypes and outcome in patients with upper aerodigestive tract cancers: assessment of the importance of individual genes using multivariate analysis,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 815–823, 1999. View at Scopus
  135. S. S. Yadav, M. Ruwali, M. C. Pant, P. Shukla, R. L. Singh, and D. Parmar, “Interaction of drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 2D6 poor metabolizers with cytochrome P450 2C9 and 2C19 genotypes modify the susceptibility to head and neck cancer and treatment response,” Mutation Research, vol. 684, no. 1-2, pp. 49–55, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. J. A. G. Agúndez, L. Gallardo, M. C. Ledesma et al., “Functionally active duplications of the CYP2D6 gene are more prevalent among larynx and lung cancer patients,” Oncology, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 59–63, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. H. Li, L. Feng, Y. Xu et al., “The association of CYP2D6*10 polymorphism with breast cancer risk and clinico-pathologic characteristics in Chinese women,” Acta Oncologica, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 597–601, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. L. Laforest, H. Wikman, S. Benhamou et al., “CYP2D6 gene polymorphism in Caucasian smokers: lung cancer susceptibility and phenotype-genotype relationships,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 36, no. 14, pp. 1825–1832, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. S. Ouerhani, R. Marrakchi, R. Bouhaha et al., “The role of CYP2D6*4 variant in bladder cancer susceptibility in Tunisian patients,” Bulletin du Cancer, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. E1–E4, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. S. Kato, E. D. Bowman, A. M. Harrington, B. Blomeke, and P. G. Shields, “Human lung carcinogen-DNA adduct levels mediated by genetic polymorphisms in vivo,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 87, no. 12, pp. 902–907, 1995. View at Scopus
  141. N. E. Caporaso, C. Lerman, J. Audrain et al., “Nicotine metabolism and CYP2D6 phenotype in smokers,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 261–263, 2001. View at Scopus
  142. S. Hayashi, J. Watanabe, and K. Kawajiri, “Genetic polymorphisms in the 5N-flanking region change transcriptional regulation of the human cytochrome P450IIE1 gene,” Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 559–565, 1991. View at Scopus
  143. D. W. Nebert, “Pharmacogenomics, ethnicity, and susceptibility genes,” Pharmacogenomics Journal, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 19–22, 2001. View at Scopus
  144. Y. C. Chen and D. J. Hunter, “Molecular epidemiology of cancer,” CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 45–54, 2005. View at Scopus
  145. F. M. Farin, L. G. Bigler, D. Oda, J. K. McDougall, and C. J. Omiecinski, “Expression of cytochrome P450 and microsomal epoxide hydrolase in cervical and oral epithelial cells immortalized by human papillomavirus type 16 E6/E7 genes,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1391–1401, 1995. View at Scopus
  146. S. Liu, J. Y. Park, S. P. Schantz, J. C. Stern, and P. Lazarus, “Elucidation of CYP2E1 5′ regulatory RsaI/Pstl allelic variants and their role in risk for oral cancer,” Oral Oncology, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 437–445, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. M. Ruwali, A. J. Khan, P. P. Shah, A. P. Singh, M. C. Pant, and D. Parmar, “Cytochrome P450 2E1 and head and neck cancer: interaction with genetic and environmental risk factors,” Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 473–482, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. J. Watanabe, S. Hayashi, and K. Kawajiri, “Different regulation and expression of the human CYP2E1 gene due to the RsaI polymorphism in the 5N-flanking region,” Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 116, no. 2, pp. 321–326, 1994. View at Scopus
  149. K. Tang, Y. Li, Z. Zhang et al., “The PstI/RsaI and DraI polymorphisms of CYP2E1 and head and neck cancer risk: a meta-analysis based on 21 case-control studies,” BMC Cancer, vol. 10, article 575, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. P. Zhan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang et al., “CYP2E1 Rsa I/Pst I polymorphism is associated with lung cancer risk among Asians,” Lung Cancer, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 19–25, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. I. N. Nishimoto, T. Hanaoka, H. Sugimura et al., “Cytochrome P450 2E1 polymorphism in gastric cancer in Brazil: case- control studies of Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 675–680, 2000. View at Scopus
  152. J. Feng, X. Pan, J. Yu et al., “Functional PstI/RsaI polymorphism in CYP2E1 is associated with the development, progression and poor outcome of gastric cancer,” PLoS One, vol. 7, no. 9, Article ID e44478, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  153. S. M. N. Garcia, O. A. Curioni, M. B. de Carvalho, and G. J. F. Gattás, “Polymorphisms in alcohol metabolizing genes and the risk of head and neck cancer in a Brazilian population,” Alcohol and Alcoholism, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 6–12, 2010. View at Scopus
  154. L. Balaji, K. B. Singh, and L. V. K. S. Bhaskar, “Genetic polymorphisms of the CYP2E1 gene do not contribute to oral cancer susceptibility in south Indians,” Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1523–1527, 2011. View at Scopus
  155. D. Li, C. Dandara, and M. I. Parker, “Association of cytochrome P450 2E1 genetic polymorphisms with squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus,” Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 370–375, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. T. Ho, Q. Wei, and E. M. Sturgis, “Epidemiology of carcinogen metabolism genes and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck,” Head and Neck, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 682–699, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. I. Persson, I. Johansson, H. Bergling et al., “Genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P4502E1 in a Swedish population. Relationship to incidence of lung cancer,” FEBS Letters, vol. 319, no. 3, pp. 207–211, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. W. D. Leng, X. T. Zeng, Y. J. Chen et al., “Cytochrome P450 2E1 RsaI/PstI polymorphism and risk of esophageal cancer: a meta-analysis of 17 case-control studies,” Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 938–948, 2012.
  159. T. Neuhaus, Y. D. Ko, K. Lorenzen et al., “Association of cytochrome P450 2E1 polymorphisms and head and neck squamous cell cancer,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 151, no. 1, pp. 273–282, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. L. K. Guo, C. Zhang, and X. Guo, “Association of genetic polymorphisms of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 and cytochrome P450 2E1-RsaI and Alcohol consumption with oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 390–395, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  161. A. Rossini, S. Soares Lima, D. C. M. Rapozo, M. Faria, R. M. Albano, and L. F. Ribeiro Pinto, “CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a Brazilian population living in Rio de Janeiro,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 195–201, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. F. C. Parra, R. C. Amado, J. R. Lambertucci, J. Rocha, C. M. Antunes, and S. D. J. Pena, “Color and genomic ancestry in Brazilians,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 177–182, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. J. R. Pimenta, L. W. Zuccherato, A. A. Debes et al., “Color and genomic ancestry in Brazilians: a study with forensic microsatellites,” Human Heredity, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 190–195, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. D. Lu, X. Yu, and Y. Du, “Meta-analyses of the effect of cytochrome P450 2E1 gene polymorphism on the risk of head and neck cancer,” Molecular Biology Reports, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 2409–2416, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. R. Liu, L. H. Yin, and Y. P. Pu, “Association of combined CYP2E1 gene polymorphism with the risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Huai'an population, China,” Chinese Medical Journal, vol. 120, no. 20, pp. 1797–1802, 2007. View at Scopus
  166. E. A. Stephens, J. A. Taylor, N. Kaplan et al., “Ethnic variation in the CYP2E1 gene: polymorphism analysis of 695 African-Americans, European-Americans and Taiwanese,” Pharmacogenetics, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 185–192, 1994. View at Scopus
  167. J. Wang, Y. Deng, L. Li et al., “Association of GSTM1, CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 genetic polymorphism with susceptibility to lung adenocarcinoma: a case-control study in Chinese population,” Cancer Science, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 448–452, 2003. View at Scopus
  168. H. C. Hung, J. Chuang, Y. C. Chien et al., “Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1, GSTM1, and GSTT1; environmental factors and risk of oral cancer,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 901–905, 1997. View at Scopus
  169. A. Hildesheim, L. M. Anderson, C. J. Chen et al., “CYP2E1 genetic polymorphisms and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in taiwan,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 89, no. 16, pp. 1207–1212, 1997. View at Scopus
  170. W. H. Jia, Q. H. Pan, H. D. Qin et al., “A case-control and a family-based association study revealing an association between CYP2E1 polymorphisms and nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk in Cantonese,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 2031–2036, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  171. M. Tsutsumi, A. Takada, and J. S. Wang, “Genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P4502E1 related to the development of alcoholic liver disease,” Gastroenterology, vol. 107, no. 5, pp. 1430–1435, 1994. View at Scopus
  172. S. S. Soya, T. Vinod, K. S. Reddy, S. Gopalakrishnan, and C. Adithan, “CYP2E1 polymorphisms and gene-environment interaction in thw risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancers among Indians,” Pharmacogenomics, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 551–560, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  173. X. Marichalar-Mendia, M. J. Rodriguez-Tojo, A. Acha-Sagredo, N. Rey-Barja, and J. M. Aguirre-Urizar, “Oral cancer and polymorphism of ethanol metabolising genes,” Oral Oncology, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 9–13, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  174. Y. Lu and A. I. Cederbaum, “CYP2E1 and oxidative liver injury by alcohol,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 723–738, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  175. A. Butura, K. Nilsson, K. Morgan et al., “The impact of CYP2E1 on the development of alcoholic liver disease as studied in a transgenic mouse model,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 572–583, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  176. E. Sim, N. Lack, C. J. Wang et al., “Arylamine N-acetyltransferases: structural and functional implications of polymorphisms,” Toxicology, vol. 254, no. 3, pp. 170–183, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  177. E. Sim, K. Walters, and S. Boukouvala, “Arylamine N-acetyltransferases: from structure to function,” Drug Metabolism Reviews, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 479–510, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  178. H. Wu, L. Dombrovsky, W. Tempel et al., “Structural basis of substrate-binding specificity of human arylamine N-acetyltransferases,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 282, no. 41, pp. 30189–30197, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  179. M. A. Payton and E. Sim, “Genotyping human arylamine N-acetyltransferase type 1 (NAT1). The identification of two novel allelic variants,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 361–366, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  180. G. H. Goodfellow, J. M. Dupret, and D. M. Grant, “Identification of amino acids imparting acceptor substrate selectivity to human arylamine acetyltransferases NAT1 and NAT2,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 348, no. 1, pp. 159–166, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  181. D. W. Layton, K. T. Bogen, M. G. Knize, F. T. Hatch, V. M. Johnson, and J. S. Felton, “Cancer risk of heterocyclic amines in cooked foods: an analysis and implications for research,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 39–52, 1995. View at Scopus
  182. J. M. Dupret and D. M. Grant, “Site-directed mutagenesis of recombinant human arylamine N-acetyltransferase expressed in Escherichia coli. Evidence for direct involvement of Cys68 in the catalytic mechanism of polymorphic human NAT2,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 267, no. 11, pp. 7381–7385, 1992. View at Scopus
  183. D. W. Hein, “Acetylator genotype and arylamine-induced carcinogenesis,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 948, no. 1, pp. 37–66, 1988. View at Scopus
  184. D. W. Hein, M. A. Doll, T. D. Rustan, and R. J. Ferguson, “Metabolic activation of N-hydroxyarylamines and N-hydroxyarylamides by 16 recombinant human NAT2 allozymes: effects of 7 specific NAT2 nucleic acid substitutions,” Cancer Research, vol. 55, no. 16, pp. 3531–3536, 1995. View at Scopus
  185. R. F. Minchin, P. T. Reeves, C. H. Teitel et al., “N- and O-acetylation of aromatic and heterocyclic amine carcinogens by human monomorphic and polymorphic acetyltransferases expressed in COS-1 cells,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 185, no. 3, pp. 839–844, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  186. D. W. Hein, M. A. Doll, T. D. Rustan et al., “Metabolic activation and deactivation of arylamine carcinogens by recombinant human NAT1 and polymorphic NAT2 acetyltransferases,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1633–1638, 1993. View at Scopus
  187. D. W. Hein, T. D. Rustan, R. J. Ferguson, M. A. Doll, and K. Gray, “Metabolic activation of aromatic and heterocyclic N-hydroxyarylamines by wild-type and mutant recombinant human NAT1 and NAT2 acetyltransferases,” Archives of Toxicology, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 129–133, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  188. A. Hirvonen, “Polymorphic NATs and cancer predisposition,” IARC Scientific Publications, no. 148, pp. 251–270, 1999. View at Scopus
  189. D. W. Hein, “Molecular genetics and function of NAT1 and NAT2: role in aromatic amine metabolism and carcinogenesis,” Mutation Research, vol. 506-507, pp. 65–77, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  190. M. Drozdz, T. Gierek, A. Jendryczko, J. Pilch, and J. Piekarska, “N-Acetyltransferase phenotype of patients with cancer of the larynx,” Neoplasma, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 481–484, 1987. View at Scopus
  191. S. Demokan, Y. Suoglu, M. Gözeler, D. Demir, and N. Dalay, “N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 gene sequence variants and risk of head and neck cancer,” Molecular Biology Reports, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 3217–3226, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  192. M. Ünal, L. Tamer, Y. Akbaş et al., “Genetic polymorphism of N-acetyltransferase 2 in the susceptibility to laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma,” Head and Neck, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 1056–1060, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  193. K. Bendjemana, M. Abdennebi, S. Gara et al., “Genetic polymorphism of gluthation-S transferases and N-acetyl transferases 2 and nasopharyngeal carcinoma: the Tunisia experience,” Bulletin du Cancer, vol. 93, no. 3, pp. 297–302, 2006. View at Scopus
  194. S. Gara, M. Abdennebi, S. Chatti, S. Touati, A. Ladgham, and F. Guemira, “Association of NAT2 gene substitution mutation T341C with increased risk for head and neck cancer in Tunisia,” Acta Oncologica, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 834–837, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  195. S. Henning, I. Cascorbi, B. Münchow, V. Jahnke, and I. Roots, “Association of arylamine N-acetyltransferases NAT1 and NAT2 genotypes to laryngeal cancer risk,” Pharmacogenetics, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 103–111, 1999. View at Scopus
  196. S. Garte, L. Gaspari, A. K. Alexandrie et al., “Metabolic gene polymorphism frequencies in control populations,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 1239–1248, 2001. View at Scopus
  197. M. Chatzimichalis, J. Xenellis, A. Tzagaroulakis et al., “GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTM3 and NAT2 polymorphisms in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in a Greek population,” Journal of Laryngology and Otology, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 318–323, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  198. S. C. Buch, V. Nazar-Stewart, J. L. Weissfeld, and M. Romkes, “Case-control study of oral and oropharyngeal cancer in whites and genetic variation in eight metabolic enzymes,” Head and Neck, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 1139–1147, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  199. T. Katoh, S. Kaneko, R. Boissy, M. Watson, K. Ikemura, and A. B. Douglas, “A pilot study testing the association between N-acetyltransferases 1 and 2 and risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma in Japanese people,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 1803–1807, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  200. S. Fronhoffs, T. Brüning, E. Ortiz-Pallardo et al., “Real-time PCR analysis of the N-acetyltransferase NAT1 allele *3, *4, 0, *11, *14 and *17 polymorphism in squamous cell cancer of head and neck,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1405–1412, 2001. View at Scopus
  201. J. D. McKay, M. Hashibe, R. J. Hung et al., “Sequence variants of NAT1 and NAT2 and other xenometabolic genes and risk of lung and aerodigestive tract cancers in Central Europe,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 141–147, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  202. J. A. G. Agúndez, “Polymorphisms of human N-acetyltransferases and cancer risk,” Current Drug Metabolism, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 520–531, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  203. H. Wang, L. Liu, P. E. Hanna, and C. R. Wagner, “Catalytic mechanism of hamster arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2,” Biochemistry, vol. 44, no. 33, pp. 11295–11306, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  204. K. Szyfter, Z. Szmeja, W. Szyfter et al., “Molecular and cellular alterations in tobacco smoke-associated larynx cancer,” Mutation Research, vol. 445, no. 2, pp. 259–274, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  205. L. Jiao, M. A. Doll, D. W. Hein et al., “Haplotype of N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 and risk of pancreatic cancer,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 2379–2386, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  206. D. Lu, X. Yu, and Y. Du, “Meta-analyses of the effect of cytochrome P450 2E1 gene polymorphism on the risk of head and neck cancer,” Molecular Biology Reports, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 2409–2416, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus