- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 591470, 13 pages
Biochemical Characterization and Pharmacological Properties of New Basic PLA2 BrTX-I Isolated from Bothrops roedingeri (Roedinger's Lancehead) Mertens, 1942, Snake Venom
Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6109,
13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil
Received 26 October 2012; Accepted 7 November 2012
Academic Editor: Elen Cristina Teizem Landucci
Copyright © 2013 Mauricio Aurelio Gomes Heleno et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- J. E. Burke and E. A. Dennis, “Phospholipase A2 biochemistry,” Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy, vol. 23, pp. 49–59, 2009.
- J. E. Burke and E. A. Dennis, “Phospholipase A2 structure/function, mechanism, and signaling,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 50, pp. S237–S242, 2009.
- R. M. Kini, “Excitement ahead: structure, function and mechanism of snake venom phospholipase A2 enzymes,” Toxicon, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 827–840, 2003.
- R. Majunatha Kini and H. J. Evans, “A model to explain the pharmacological effects of snake venom phospholipases A2,” Toxicon, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 613–635, 1989.
- J. M. Gutiérrez and C. L. Ownby, “Skeletal muscle degeneration induced by venom phospholipases A2: insights into the mechanisms of local and systemic myotoxicity,” Toxicon, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 915–931, 2003.
- L. A. Ponce-Soto, D. Martins, J. C. Novello, and S. Marangoni, “Structural and biological characterization of two crotamine isoforms IV-2 and IV-3 isolated from the Crotalus durissus cumanensis venom,” Protein Journal, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 533–540, 2007.
- G. Lambeau and M. Lazdunski, “Receptors for a growing family of secreted phospholipases A2,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 162–170, 1999.
- J. V. Bonventre and A. Sapirstein, “Group IV cytosolic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) function: insights from the knockout mouse,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 507, pp. 25–31, 2002.
- I. Kudo and M. Murakami, “Phospholipase A2 enzymes,” Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators, vol. 68-69, pp. 3–58, 2002.
- J. Campbell and W. W. Lamar, The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America, Cornell Univ. Press, New York, NY, USA, 2004.
- A. Zavaleta and M. Salas, “Ofidismo: envenenamiento por mordedura de serpientes,” J. R. Martínez-Villaverde, R. León-Barúa, L. Vidal-Neira, and R. Losno-García, Eds., pp. 241–260, Emergencias en Medicina Interna, Lima, Perú, 1996.
- H. W. Fan and J. L. C. Cardoso, “Clinical toxicology of snake bites in South America,” in Handbook of Clinical Toxicology of Animal Venoms and Poisons, J. Meier and J. White, Eds., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA.
- R. M. Kini and Y. M. Chan, “Accelerated evolution and molecular surface of venom phospholipase A2 enzymes,” Journal of Molecular Evolution, vol. 48, pp. 125–132, 1999.
- D. Kordiš and F. Gubenšek, “Bov-B long interspersed repeated DNA (LINE) sequences are present in Vipera ammodytes phospholipase A2 genes and in genomes of Viperidae snakes,” European Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 246, no. 3, pp. 772–779, 1997.
- L. A. Ponce-Soto, V. L. Bonfim, L. Rodrigues-Simioni, J. C. Novello, and S. Marangoni, “Determination of primary structure of two isoforms 6-1 and 6-2 PLA 2 D49 from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom and neurotoxic characterization using in vitro neuromuscular preparation,” Protein Journal, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 147–155, 2006.
- W. Cho and F. J. Kezdy, “Chromogenic substrates and assay of phospholipases A2,” Methods in Enzymology, vol. 197, pp. 75–79, 1991.
- M. Holzer and S. P. Mackessy, “An aqueous endpoint assay of snake venom phospholipase A2,” Toxicon, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 1149–1155, 1996.
- L. A. Ponce-Soto, M. H. Toyama, S. Hyslop, J. C. Novello, and S. Marangoni, “Isolation and preliminary enzymatic characterization of a novel PLA2 from Crotalus durissus collilineatus venom,” Journal of Protein Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 131–136, 2002.
- U. K. Laemmli, “Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4,” Nature, vol. 227, no. 5259, pp. 680–685, 1970.
- R. L. Heinrikson and S. C. Meredith, “Amino acid analysis by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography: precolumn derivatization with phenylisothiocyanate,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 136, no. 1, pp. 65–74, 1984.
- L. A. Ponce-Soto, D. Martins-De-souza, and S. Marangoni, “Neurotoxic, myotoxic and cytolytic activities of the new basic PLA 2 isoforms BmjeTX-I and BmjeTX-II isolated from the Bothrops marajoensis (marajó lancehead) snake venom,” Protein Journal, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 103–113, 2010.
- B. L. Ginsborg and J. Warriner, “The isolated chick Biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation,” British Journal of Pharmacology and Chemotherapy, vol. 15, pp. 410–411, 1960.
- L. A. Ponce-Soto, B. Lomonte, L. Rodrigues-Simioni, J. C. Novello, and S. Marangoni, “Biological and structural characterization of crotoxin and new isoform of crotoxin B PLA2 (F6a) from Crotalus durissus collilineatus snake venom,” Protein Journal, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 221–230, 2007.
- L. A. Ponce-Soto, P. A. Baldasso, F. F. Romero-Vargas, F. V. Winck, J. C. Novello, and S. Marangoni, “Biochemical, pharmacological and structural characterization of two PLA2 isoforms Cdr-12 and Cdr-13 from Crotalus durissus ruruima snake venom,” Protein Journal, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 39–49, 2007.
- M. Holzer and S. P. Mackessy, “An aqueous endpoint assay of snake venom phospholipase A2,” Toxicon, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 1149–1155, 1996.
- A. K. Calgarotto, D. C. S. Damico, L. A. Ponce-Soto et al., “Biological and biochemical characterization of new basic phospholipase A2 BmTX-I isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom,” Toxicon, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 1509–1519, 2008.
- S. Huancahuire-Vega, L. A. Ponce-Soto, D. Martins-de-Souza, and S. Marangoni, “Structural and functional characterization of brazilitoxins II and III (BbTX-II and -III), two myotoxins from the venom of Bothrops brazili snake,” Toxicon, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 818–827, 2009.
- H. Breithaupt, “Enzymatic characteristics of crotalus phospholipase A2 and the crotoxin complex,” Toxicon, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 221–233, 1976.
- H. M. Verheij, A. J. Slotboom, and G. H. de Haas, “Structure and function of phospholipase A2,” Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry & Pharmacology, vol. 91, pp. 91–203, 1981.
- G. Schiavo, M. Matteoli, and C. Montecucco, “Neurotoxins affecting neuroexocytosis,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 717–766, 2000.
- D. G. Beghini, M. H. Toyama, S. Hyslop, L. C. Sodek, Novello, and S. Marangoni, “Enzymatic characterization of a novel phospholipase A2 from Crotalus durissus cascavella rattlesnake (maracambóia) venom,” Protein Journal, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 679–684, 2000.
- V. L. Bonfim, M. H. Toyama, J. C. Novello et al., “Isolation and enzymatic characterization of a basic phospholipase A 2 from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom,” Protein Journal, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 239–245, 2001.
- V. L. Bonfim, L. A. Ponce-Soto, J. C. Novello, and S. Marangoni, “Structural and functional properties of Cr 5, a new Lys49 phospholipase A2 homologue isolated from the venom of the snake Calloselasma rhodostoma,” Protein Journal, vol. 25, no. 7-8, pp. 492–502, 2006.
- E. Habermann and H. Breithaupt, “The crotoxin complex—an example of biochemical and pharmacological protein complementation,” Toxicon, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 19–30, 1978.
- R. M. Kini, “Phospholipase A2: a complex multifuncional protein puzzle,” in Venom Phospholipase A2 Enzymes: Structure, Function and Mechanism, R. M. Kini, Ed., pp. 1–28, Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1997.
- W. A. Pieterson, J. C. Vidal, J. J. Volwerk, and G. H. De Haas, “Zymogen-catalyzed hydrolysis of monomeric substrates and the presence of a recognition site for lipid-water interfaces in phospholipase A2,” Biochemistry, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1455–1460, 1974.
- E. A. Dennis, “Diversity of groups types, regulation and function of phospholipase A2,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 269, pp. 13057–13060, 1994.
- J. Gutiérrez and B. Lomonte, “Phospholipase A2 myotoxins from Bothrops snake venoms,” Toxicon, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 1405–1424, 1995.
- J. M. Gutiérrez and B. Lomonte, “Phospholipase A2 myotoxins from Bothrops snake venoms,” in Venom Phospholipase A2 Enzymes, Structure, Function and Mechanism, R. M. Kini, Ed., pp. 321–352, John Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 1997.
- R. M. Kini and S. Iwanaga, “Structure-function relationships of phospholipases I: prediction of presynaptic neurotoxicity,” Toxicon, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 527–541, 1986.
- R. M. Kini and S. Iwanaga, “Structure-function relationships of phospholipases II: charge density distribution and the myotoxicity of presynaptically neurotoxic phospholipases,” Toxicon, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 895–905, 1986.
- R. M. Kini and H. J. Evans, “Structure-function relationships of phospholipases. The anticoagulant region of phospholipases A2,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 262, no. 30, pp. 14402–14407, 1987.
- R. M. Kini and H. J. Evans, “A common cytolytic region in myotoxins, hemolysins, cardiotoxins and antibacterial peptides,” International Journal of Peptide and Protein Research, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 277–286, 1989.
- R. M. Kini and H. J. Evans, “Role of cationic residues in cytolytic activity: modification of lysine residues in the cardiotoxin from Naja nigricollis venom and correlation between cytolytic and antiplatelet activity,” Biochemistry, vol. 28, no. 23, pp. 9209–9215, 1989.
- A. L. Harvey, A. Barfaraz, E. Thomson, A. Faiz, S. Preston, and J. B. Harris, “Screening of snake venoms for neurotoxic and myotoxic effects using simple in vitro preparations from rodents and chicks,” Toxicon, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 257–265, 1994.
- R. L. Lewis and L. Gutmann, “Snake venoms and the neuromuscular junction,” Seminars in Neurology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 175–179, 2004.
- L. Rodrigues-Simioni, S. R. Zamunér, J. C. Cogo et al., “Pharmacological evidence for a presynaptic action of venoms from Bothrops insularis (Jararaca ilhoa) and Bothrops neuwiedi (Jararaca pintada),” Toxicon, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 633–638, 2004.
- C. A. Dal Belo, G. B. Leite, M. H. Toyama et al., “Pharmacological and structural characterization of a novel phospholipase A2 from Micrurus dumerilii carinicauda venom,” Toxicon, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 736–750, 2005.
- O. Vital Brazil and M. D. Fontana, “Ações pré-juncionais e pós-juncionais da peçonha da cobra coral Micrurus corallinus na junção neuromuscular,” Memórias do Instituto Butantan, vol. 47-48, pp. 13–26, 1984.
- J. C. Cogo, J. Prado-Franceschi, M. A. Cruz-Hofling, A. P. Corrado, and L. Rodrigues-Simioni, “Effect of Bothrops insularis venom on the mouse and chick nerve-muscle preparation,” Toxicon, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1237–1247, 1993.
- C. R. Borja-Oliveira, B. H. Kassab, A. M. Soares et al., “Purification and N-terminal sequencing of two presynaptic neurotoxic PLA2, neuwieditoxin-I and neuwieditoxin-II, from Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis (Jararaca pintada) venom,” Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 103–121, 2007.
- L. Rodrigues-Simioni, R. S. Floriano, S. Rostelato-Ferreira et al., “Presynaptic action of Bothriopsis bilineata smargadina (forest viper) venom in vitro,” Toxicon, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 140–145, 2011.
- C. Montecucco, J. M. Gutiérrez, and B. Lomonte, “Cellular pathology induced by snake venom phospholipase A2 myotoxins and neurotoxins: common aspects of their mechanisms of action,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 65, no. 18, pp. 2897–2912, 2008.
- J. M. Gutiérrez, L. Alberto Ponce-Soto, S. Marangoni, and B. Lomonte, “Systemic and local myotoxicity induced by snake venom group II phospholipases A2: comparison between crotoxin, crotoxin B and a Lys49 PLA2 homologue,” Toxicon, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 80–92, 2008.
- E. C. T. Landucci, R. C. Castro, M. F. Pereira et al., “Mast cell degranulation induced by two phospholipase A2 homologues: dissociation between enzymatic and biological activities,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 343, no. 2-3, pp. 257–263, 1998.
- F. Chaves, G. León, V. H. Alvarado, and J. M. Gutiérrez, “Pharmacological modulation of edema induced by Lys-49 and Asp-49 myotoxic phospholipases A2 isolated from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper (terciopelo),” Toxicon, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1861–1869, 1998.
- B. Lomonte, J. M. Gutiérrez, M. Ramírez, and C. Díaz, “Neutralization of myotoxic phospholipases A2 from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper by monoclonal antibodies,” Toxicon, vol. 30, pp. 239–245, 1992.
- J. M. Gutierrez, F. Chaves, J. A. Gene, B. Lomonte, Z. Camacho, and K. Schosinsky, “Myonecrosis induced in mice by a basic myotoxin isolated from the venom of the snake Bothrops nummifer (jumping viper) from Costa Rica,” Toxicon, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 735–745, 1989.
- J. M. Gutiérrez, J. Nuñez, C. Díaz, A. C. Cintra, M. I. Homsi-Brandeburgo, and J. R. Giglio, “Skeletal muscle degeneration and regeneration after injection of bothropstoxin-II, a phospholipase A2 isolated from the venom of the snake Bothrops jararacussu,” Experimental and Molecular Pathology, vol. 55, pp. 217–229, 1991.
- R. C. De Castro, E. C. T. Landucci, M. H. Toyama et al., “Leucocyte recruitment induced by type II phospholipases A2 into the rat pleural cavity,” Toxicon, vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 1773–1785, 2000.
- E. Stylianou and J. Saklatvala, “Interleukin-1,” International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, vol. 30, pp. 1075–1079, 1998.
- E. C. T. Landucci, R. C. De Castro, M. Toyama et al., “Inflammatory oedema induced by the Lys-49 phospholipase A2 homologue piratoxin-I in the rat and rabbit. Effect of polyanions and p-bromophenacyl bromide,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 59, no. 10, pp. 1289–1294, 2000.
- S. H. Andrião-Escarso, A. M. Soares, V. M. Rodrigues et al., “Myotoxic phospholipases A2 in Bothrops snake venoms: effect of chemical modifications on the enzymatic and pharmacological properties of Bothrops toxins from Bothrops jararacussu,” Biochimie, vol. 82, no. 8, pp. 755–763, 2000.
- M. M. Kanashiro, R. C. M. De Escocard, J. H. Petretski et al., “Biochemical and biological properties of phospholipases A2 from Bothrops atrox snake venom,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 1179–1186, 2002.