Table 2: Effect of andrographolide on kidney biomarkers in hyperlipidemic rats.

Na (mmol/L)K (mmol/L)Urea (mmol/L)Creatinine (µmol/L)

Group 1143.17 ± 0.4*4.47 ± 0.110.5 ± 0.2438 ± 2.45
Group 2138.67 ± 0.334.13 ± 0.0711.97 ± 0.2945.5 ± 0.22
Group 3143.5 ± 0.34*4.32 ± 0.0512.62 ± 0.3939.5 ± 2.69
Group 4144.5 ± 0.34*4.7 ± 0.18*11.98 ± 0.4643.17 ± 2.82
Group 5146.17 ± 0.4*4.47 ± 0.0811.67 ± 0.5541.17 ± 0.54

Sodium (Na); (4,25) = 58.4, < 0.001, Potassium (K); (4,25) = 3.9, < 0.05, Urea; (4,25) = 3.7, < 0.05, Creatinine; (4,25) = 2.0, = 0.119.
Group (1) vehicle; Group (2) vehicle and P. gingivalis; Group (3) simvastatin (100 mg/kg); Group (4) andrographolide 20 mg/kg; Group (5) andrographolide 10 mg/kg. Statistical Analysis of the data was carried out using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Dennett’s post hoc test for average comparison on SPSS 18.0. Mean values SEM ( = 6) were used. Significance was defined as < 0.05 compared to G2. Values without an asterisk do not have significant difference compared to G2.