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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 595873, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/595873
Review Article

Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound of the Kidneys: What Is It Capable of?

Radiology Department, Evangelismos Hospital, 45-47 Ypsilantou Street, 10676 Athens, Greece

Received 29 April 2013; Revised 22 September 2013; Accepted 30 September 2013

Academic Editor: Michael Froehner

Copyright © 2013 Demosthenes D. Cokkinos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

One of the many imaging uses of contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is studying a wide variety of kidney pathology, due to its ability to detect microvascular blood flow in real time without affecting renal function. CEUS enables dynamic assessment and quantification of microvascularisation up to capillary perfusion. The objective of this paper is to briefly refresh basic knowledge of ultrasound (US) contrast agents’ physical properties, to study technical details of CEUS scanning in the kidneys, and to review the commonest renal indications for CEUS, with imaging examples in comparison to baseline unenhanced US and computed tomography when performed. Safety matters and limitations of CEUS of the kidneys are also discussed.