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Figure 1: General mechanotransduction schemas. Changes in the external mechanical load cause a change in the internal mechanical tension of the cell and its deformation. Deformations can occur in the ion channels causing changes in their permeability for different ions, for example for calcium, which is a secondary messenger and can activate some signalling pathways. Moreover, deformations can also occur in the cytoskeleton, both in the sarcomere (for muscle cells) and cortical cytoskeleton, causing the release of different signalling molecules and activation of downstream signalling pathways. The final result will be a change in the cell’s mechanical properties, its functional activity, and formation of adaptive patterns in gene expression.