Table 3: Permeated amount of Diclofenac sodium at 24 h, flux, permeability coefficient, and residual drug remaining in the skin as percent of initially applied drug for the formulations. Results are revealed as mean ± standard deviation ( ).

Formulation (code)Permeated amount at 24 h (µg/cm2)Flux (µg/cm2/h)Permeability coefficient
( ) × 10−3 (cm/h)
Residual drug (%)

Hydroethanolic solution (F1)84.3 ± 2.33.36 ± 0.680.336 ± 0.060.89 ± 0.26
Carbopol gel (F2)176.6 ± 6.57.17 ± 1.690.717 ± 0.162.32 ± 0.95
Liposomal dispersion (F3)421.2 ± 35.616.32 ± 2.351.632 ± 0.234.32 ± 1.12
Ethosomal dispersion (F4)952.6 ± 95.337.77 ± 6.23.777 ± 0.610.58 ± 2.01
Transfersomal dispersion (F5)1026.6 ± 63.837.87 ± 3.153.781 ± 0.3212.26 ± 3.25
Liposomal gel (F6)786.0 ± 86.329.13 ± 5.242.913 ± 0.5212.62 ± 2.68
Ethosomal gel (F7)2256.9 ± 68.391.69 ± 6.519.169 ± 0.6523.9 ± 1.86
Transfersomal gel (F8)2405.5 ± 110.6100.57 ± 3.6110.057 ± 0.3621.32 ± 2.63