About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 620719, 21 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/620719
Review Article

Development of Microencapsulation Delivery System for Long-Term Preservation of Probiotics as Biotherapeutics Agent

1Department of Pharmaceutics, S.S.R. College of Pharmacy, Sayli-Silvassa Road, Sayli, Silvassa, Dora and Nagar Haveli 396230, India
2Hemchandracharya North Gujarat University, Patan, Gujarat 384265, India
3APMC College of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Motipura, Himmatnagar, Sabarkantha 383001, India

Received 17 April 2013; Accepted 21 June 2013

Academic Editor: Salvatore Sauro

Copyright © 2013 Himanshu K. Solanki et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. FAO/WHO, Guidelines for the Evaluation of Probiotics in Food, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization, London, UK, 2002.
  2. R. Fuller, “Probiotics in man and animals,” Journal of Applied Bacteriology, vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 365–378, 1989. View at Scopus
  3. S. Rokka and P. Rantamäki, “Protecting probiotic bacteria by microencapsulation: challenges for industrial applications,” European Food Research and Technology, vol. 231, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. C. Dunne, “Adaptation of bacteria to the intestinal niche: probiotics and gut disorder,” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 136–145, 2001. View at Scopus
  5. R. Agheyisi, “Ga-121 probiotics: ingredients, supplements, foods,” Tech. Rep., Business Communication Company, Norwalk, Conn, USA, 2005.
  6. S. K. Hood and E. A. Zottola, “Effect of low pH on the ability of Lactobacillus-acidophilus to survive and adhere to human intestinal cells,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 1514–1516, 1988.
  7. F. A. M. Klaver, F. Kingma, and A. H. Weerkamp, “Growth and survival of bifidobacteria in milk,” Netherlands Milk and Dairy Journal, vol. 47, no. 3-4, pp. 151–164, 1993. View at Scopus
  8. N. P. Shah and W. E. V. Lankaputhra, “Improving viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. in yogurt,” International Dairy Journal, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 349–356, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. B. Hughes and D. G. Hoover, “Bifidobacteria: their potential for use in American dairy products,” Food Technology, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 74–83, 1991.
  10. C. Desmond, C. Stanton, G. F. Fitzgerald, K. Collins, and R. P. Ross, “Environmental adaptation of probiotic lactobacilli towards improvement of performance during spray drying,” International Dairy Journal, vol. 12, no. 2-3, pp. 183–190, 2012. View at Scopus
  11. A. K. Anal and H. Singh, “Recent advances in microencapsulation of probiotics for industrial applications and targeted delivery,” Trends in Food Science and Technology, vol. 18, pp. 240–251, 2007.
  12. W. Krasaekoopt, B. Bhandari, and H. Deeth, “The influence of coating materials on some properties of alginate beads and survivability of microencapsulated probiotic bacteria,” International Dairy Journal, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 737–743, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. Capela, T. K. C. Hay, and N. P. Shah, “Effect of cryoprotectants, prebiotics and microencapsulation on survival of probiotic organisms in yoghurt and freeze-dried yoghurt,” Food Research International, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 203–211, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. K. N. Chen, M. J. Chen, and C. W. Lin, “Optimal combination of the encapsulating materials for probiotic microcapsules and its experimental verification (R1),” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 79, pp. 313–320, 2006.
  15. N. T. Annan, A. D. Borza, and L. T. Hansen, “Encapsulation in alginate-coated gelatin microspheres improves survival of the probiotic Bifidobacterium adolescentis 15703T during exposure to simulated gastro-intestinal conditions,” Food Research International, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 184–193, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. K. Gbassi, T. Vandamme, S. Ennahar, and E. Marchioni, “Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus plantarum spp in an alginate matrix coated with whey proteins,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 103–105, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. T. Heidebach, P. Först, and U. Kulozik, “Influence of casein-based microencapsulation on freeze-drying and storage of probiotic cells,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 309–316, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. O. Sandoval-Castilla, C. Lobato-Calleros, H. S. García-Galindo, J. Alvarez-Ramírez, and E. J. Vernon-Carter, “Textural properties of alginate-pectin beads and survivability of entrapped Lb. casei in simulated gastrointestinal conditions and in yoghurt,” Food Research International, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 111–117, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. B. F. Gibbs, S. Kermasha, I. Alli, and C. N. Mulligan, “Encapsulation in the food industry: a review,” International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 213–224, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C. P. Champagne and K. Kailasapathy, “Encapsulation of probiotics,” in Delivery and Controlled Release of Bioactives in Foods and Nutraceuticals, N. Garti, Ed., pp. 344–369, Woodhead, Cambridge, UK, 2008.
  21. N. J. Zuidam and E. Shimoni, “Overview of microencapsulates for use in food products or processes and methods to take them,” in Encapsulation Technologies for Active Food Ingredients and Food Processing, N. J. Zuidam and V. Nedovic, Eds., pp. 3–29, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2009.
  22. M. J. Chen and K. N. Chen, “Applications of probiotic encapsulation in dairy products,” in Encapsulation and Controlled Release Technologies in Food Systems, J. M. Lakkis, Ed., pp. 83–107, Wiley-Blackwell, New York, NY, USA, 2007.
  23. A. Mortazavian, S. H. Razavi, M. R. Ehsani, and S. Sohrabvandi, “Principle’s and method of microencapsulation of probiotic microorganisms,” Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–18, 2007.
  24. P. Muthukumarasamy, P. Allan-Wojtas, and R. A. Holley, “Stability of Lactobacillus reuteri in different types of microcapsules,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. M20–M24, 2006. View at Scopus
  25. A. Ainsley Reid, J. C. Vuillemard, M. Britten, Y. Arcand, E. Farnworth, and C. P. Champagne, “Microentrapment of probiotic bacteria in a Ca2+-induced whey protein gel and effects on their viability in a dynamic gastro-intestinal model,” Journal of Microencapsulation, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 603–619, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. K. G. H. Desai and H. J. Park, “Recent developments in microencapsulation of food ingredients,” Drying Technology, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 1361–1394, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. Y. Sheu and R. T. Marshall, “Microencapsulation of lactobacilli in calcium alginate gels,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 54, pp. 557–561, 1993.
  28. K. M. K. Kebary, S. A. Hussein, and R. M. Badawi, “Improving viability of Bifidobacteria and their effect on frozen ice milk,” Egyptian Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 23, pp. 319–337, 1998.
  29. W. Krasaekoopt, B. Bhandari, and H. Deeth, “Evaluation of encapsulation techniques of probiotics for yoghurt,” International Dairy Journal, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 3–13, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. H. L. Truelstrup, P. M. Allan-Wojtas, Y. L. Jin, and A. T. Paulson, “Survival of Ca-alginate microencapsulated Bifidobacterium spp. in milk and simulated gastrointestinal conditions,” Food Microbiology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 35–45, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. Borgogna, B. Bellich, L. Zorzin, R. Lapasin, and A. Cesàro, “Food microencapsulation of bioactive compounds: rheological and thermal characterisation of nonconventional gelling system,” Food Chemistry, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 416–423, 2010.
  32. W. Sun and M. W. Griffiths, “Survival of bifidobacteria in yogurt and simulated gastric juice following immobilization in gellan-xanthan beads,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 17–25, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. C. Mohan, R. Arora, and M. Khalilullah, “Short term hypolipidemic effects of oral Lactobacillus sporogenes therapy in patients with primary dyslipidemias,” Indian Heart Journal, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 361–364, 1990. View at Scopus
  34. H. Bukowska, J. Pieczul-Mroz, M. Jastrzebska, K. Chelstowski, and M. Naruszewicz, “Decrease in fibrinogen and LDL-cholesterol levels upon supplementation of diet with Lactobacillus plantarum in subjects with moderately elevated cholesterol,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 137, no. 2, pp. 437–438, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. W. Anderson and S. E. Gilliland, “Effect of fermented milk (yogurt) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus L1 on serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic humans,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 43–50, 1999. View at Scopus
  36. M. Naruszewicz, M. Johansson, D. Zapolska-Downar, and H. Bukowska, “Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on cardiovascular disease risk factors in smokers,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 76, no. 6, pp. 1249–1255, 2002. View at Scopus
  37. M. Kalliomäki, S. Salminen, H. Arvilommi, P. Kero, P. Koskinen, and E. Isolauri, “Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: a randomised placebo-controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 357, no. 9262, pp. 1076–1079, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Rautava, M. Kalliomäki, and E. Isolauri, “Probiotics during pregnancy and breast-feeding might confer immunomodulatory protection against atopic disease in the infant,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 119–121, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. T. Pessi, Y. Sütas, M. Hurme, and E. Isolauri, “Interleukin-10 generation in atopic children following oral lactobacillus rhamnosus GG,” Clinical and Experimental Allergy, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1804–1808, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. E. Isolauri, T. Arvola, Y. Sutas, E. Moilanen, and S. Salminen, “Probiotics in the management of atopic eczema,” Clinical and Experimental Allergy, vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 1604–1610, 2000. View at Scopus
  41. E. Isolauri, H. Majamaa, T. Arvola, I. Rantala, E. Virtanen, and H. Arvilommi, “Lactobacillus casei strain GG reverses increased intestinal permeability induced by cow milk in suckling rats,” Gastroenterology, vol. 105, no. 6, pp. 1643–1650, 1993. View at Scopus
  42. T. Pessi, Y. Sütas, A. Marttinen, and E. Isolauri, “Probiotics reinforce mucosal degradation of antigens in rats: implications for therapeutic use of probiotics,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 128, no. 12, pp. 2313–2318, 1998. View at Scopus
  43. T. Matsuzaki, R. Yamazaki, S. Hashimoto, and T. Yokokura, “The effect of oral feeding of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on immunoglobulin E production in mice,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 48–53, 1998. View at Scopus
  44. K. Shida, K. Makino, A. Morishita et al., “Lactobacillus casei inhibits antigen-induced IgE secretion through regulation of cytokine production in murine splenocyte cultures,” International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, vol. 115, no. 4, pp. 278–287, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. H. Majamaa and E. Isolauri, “Probiotics: a novel approach in the management of food allergy,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 179–185, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. L. Pelto, E. Isolauri, E.-M. Lillus, J. Nuutila, and S. Salminen, “Probiotic bacteria down-regulate the milk-induced inflammatory response in milk-hypersensitive subjects but have an immunostimulatory effect in healthy subjects,” Clinical and Experimental Allergy, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1474–1479, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. Y. Sütas, M. Hurme, and E. Isolauri, “Down-regulation of anti-CD3 antibody-induced IL-4 production by bovine caseins hydrolysed with Lactobacillus GG-derived enzymes,” Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 687–689, 1996. View at Scopus
  48. Y. Sütas, E. Soppi, H. Korhonen et al., “Suppression of lymphocyte proliferation in vitro by bovine caseins hydrolyzed with Lactobacillus casei GG-derived enzymes,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 216–224, 1996. View at Scopus
  49. L. Pelto, S. Salminen, and E. Isolauri, “Lactobacillus GG modulates milkinduced immune inflammatory response in milk-hypersensitive adults,” Nutrition Today, vol. 31, supplement 6, pp. 45S–47S, 1996.
  50. K. Hatakka, E. Savilahti, A. Pönkä et al., “Effect of long term consumption of probiotic milk on infections in children attending day care centres: double blind, randomised trial,” British Medical Journal, vol. 322, no. 7298, pp. 1327–1329, 2001. View at Scopus
  51. E. J. Schiffrin, F. Rochat, H. Link-Amster, J. M. Aeschlimann, and A. Donnet-Hughes, “Immunomodulation of human blood cells following the ingestion of lactic acid bacteria,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 491–497, 1995. View at Scopus
  52. E. J. Schiffrin, D. Brassart, A. L. Servin, F. Rochat, and A. Donnet-Hughes, “Immune modulation of blood leukocytes in humans by lactic acid bacteria: criteria for strain selection,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 66, supplement 2, pp. 515S–520S, 1997. View at Scopus
  53. G. Perdigon, M. E. N. de Macias, S. Alvarez, G. Oliver, and A. A. P. Holgado, “Enhancement of immune response in mice fed with Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 919–926, 1993. View at Scopus
  54. M. V. Tejada-Simon, J. H. Lee, Z. Ustunol, and J. J. Pestka, “Ingestion of yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium to potentiate immunoglobulin A responses to cholera toxin in mice,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 649–660, 1999. View at Scopus
  55. G. E. Hatcher and R. S. Lambrecht, “Augmentation of macrophage phagocytic activity by cell-free extracts of selected lactic acid-producing bacteria,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 76, no. 9, pp. 2485–2492, 1993. View at Scopus
  56. P. Marteau, J. Vaerman, J. Dehennin et al., “Effects of intrajejunal perfusion and chronic ingestion of Lactobacillus johnsonii strain La1 on serum concentrations and jejunal secretions of immunoglobulins and serum proteins in healthy humans,” Gastroenterologie Clinique et Biologique, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 293–298, 1997. View at Scopus
  57. K. Arunachalam, H. S. Gill, and R. K. Chandra, “Enhancement of natural immune function by dietary consumption of Bifidobacterium lactis (HN019),” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 263–267, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. B. L. Chiang, Y. H. Sheih, L. H. Wang, C. K. Liao, and H. S. Gill, “Enhancing immunity by dietary consumption of a probiotic lactic acid bacterium (Bifidobacterium lactis HN019): optimization and definition of cellular immune responses,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 849–855, 2000. View at Scopus
  59. Y.-H. Sheih, B.-L. Chiang, L.-H. Wang, C.-K. Liao, and H. S. Gill, “Systemic immunity-enhancing effects in healthy subjects following dietary consumption of the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 149–156, 2001. View at Scopus
  60. H. S. Gill, K. J. Rutherfurd, J. Prasad, and P. K. Gopal, “Enhancement of natural and acquired immunity by Lactobacillus rhamnosus (HN001), Lactobacillus acidophilus (HN017) and Bifidobacterium lactis (HN019),” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 167–176, 2000. View at Scopus
  61. A. Armuzzi, F. Cremonini, F. Bartolozzi et al., “The effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus GG on antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal side-effects during Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 163–169, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. J. A. Vanderhoof, D. B. Whitney, D. L. Antonson, T. L. Hanner, J. V. Lupo, and R. J. Young, “Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 135, no. 5, pp. 564–568, 1999. View at Scopus
  63. S. Siitonen, H. Vapaatalo, S. Salminen et al., “Effect of Lactobacillus GG yoghurt in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea,” Annals of Medicine, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 57–59, 1990. View at Scopus
  64. J. A. Biller, A. J. Katz, A. F. Flores, T. M. Buie, and S. L. Gorbach, “Treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis with Lactobacillus GG,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 224–226, 1995. View at Scopus
  65. R. G. Bennett, S. L. Gorbach, B. R. Goldin, et al., “Treatment of relapsing Clostridium difficile diarrhea with Lactobacillus GG,” Nutrition Today, vol. 31, pp. 35S–39S, 1996.
  66. F. Black, K. Einarsson, A. Lidbeck, K. Orrhage, and C. E. Nord, “Effect of lactic acid producing bacteria on the human intestinal microflora during ampicillin treatment,” Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 247–254, 1991. View at Scopus
  67. M. Hickson, A. L. D'Souza, N. Muthu et al., “Use of probiotic Lactobacillus preparation to prevent diarrhoea associated with antibiotics: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial,” British Medical Journal, vol. 335, article 80, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  68. C. M. Surawicz, G. W. Elmer, P. Speelman, L. V. McFarland, J. Chinn, and G. van Belle, “Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: a prospective study,” Gastroenterology, vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 981–988, 1989. View at Scopus
  69. L. V. McFarland, C. M. Surawicz, R. N. Greenberg et al., “Prevention of β-lactam-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii compared with placebo,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 439–448, 1995. View at Scopus
  70. F. Cremonini, S. Di Caro, M. Covino et al., “Effect of different probiotic preparations on anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy-related side effects: a parallel group, triple blind, placebo-controlled study,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 97, no. 11, pp. 2744–2749, 2002. View at Scopus
  71. T. Arvola, K. Laiho, S. Torkkeli et al., “Prophylactic Lactobacillus GG reduces antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children with respiratory infections: a randomized study,” Pediatrics, vol. 104, no. 5, pp. 1–4, 1999. View at Scopus
  72. J. Levy, “Experience with live Lactobacillus plantarum 299V: a promising adjunct in the management of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection,” Gastroenterology, vol. 112, article A379, 1997.
  73. M. Gotteland, S. Cruchet, and S. Verbeke, “Effect of lactobacillus ingestion on the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier alterations induced by indometacin in humans,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 11–17, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. H. Jahn, R. Ullrich, T. Schneider et al., “Immunological and trophical effects of Saccharomyces boulardii on the small intestine in healthy human volunteers,” Digestion, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 95–104, 1996. View at Scopus
  75. J.-P. Buts, N. de Keyser, and L. de Raedemaeker, “Saccharomyces boulardii enhances rat intestinal enzyme expression by endoluminal release of polyamines,” Pediatric Research, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 522–527, 1994. View at Scopus
  76. A. Shornikova, I. A. Casas, H. Mykkänen, E. Salo, and T. Vesikari, “Bacteriotherapy with Lactobacillus reuteri in rotavirus gastroenteritis,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 1103–1107, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. D. R. Mack, S. Michail, S. Wei, L. McDougall, and M. A. Hollingsworth, “Probiotics inhibit enteropathogenic E. coli adherence in vitro by inducing intestinal mucin gene expression,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 276, no. 4, pp. G941–G950, 1999. View at Scopus
  78. A.-V. Shornikova, E. Isolauri, L. Burkanova, S. Lukovnikova, and T. Vesikari, “A trial in the Karelian Republic of oral rehydration and Lactobacillus GG for treatment of acute diarrhoea,” Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 460–465, 1997. View at Scopus
  79. M. Kaila, E. Isolauri, E. Soppi, E. Virtanen, S. Laine, and H. Arvilommi, “Enhancement of the circulating antibody secreting cell response in human diarrhea by a human Lactobacillus strain,” Pediatric Research, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 141–144, 1992. View at Scopus
  80. J. M. Saavedra, N. A. Bauman, I. Oung, J. A. Perman, and R. H. Yolken, “Feeding of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Streptococcus thermophilus to infants in hospital for prevention of diarrhoea and shedding of rotavirus,” The Lancet, vol. 344, no. 8929, pp. 1046–1049, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. S. Gonzalez, G. Albarracin, M. L. Pesce, M. Appela, A. P. Holgado, and G. Oliver, “Prevention of infantile diarrhoea by fermented milk,” Microbiologie, Aliments, Nutrition, vol. 8, pp. 349–354, 1990.
  82. S. N. Gonzalez, R. Cardozo, M. C. Apella, and G. Oliver, “Biotherapeutic role of fermented milk,” Biotherapy, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 129–134, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. T. Sugita and M. Togowa, “Efficacy of Lactobacillus preparation Biolactis powder in children with rotavirus enteritis,” Japan Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 47, pp. 213–220, 1994.
  84. S. Michail and F. Abernathy, “Lactobacillus plantarum reduces the in vitro secretory response of intestinal epithelial cells to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 350–355, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. M. Ogawa, K. Shimizu, K. Nomoto et al., “Protective effect of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in infant rabbits,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 1101–1108, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. P. F. Pérez, J. Minnaard, M. Rouvet et al., “Inhibition of Giardia intestinalis by extracellular factors from lactobacilli: an in vitro study,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 67, no. 3–12, pp. 5037–5042, 2001. View at Scopus
  87. I. Adlerberth, S. Ahrné, M. Johansson, G. Molin, L. A. Hanson, and A. E. Wold, “A mannose-specific adherence mechanism in Lactobacillus plantarum conferring binding to the human colonic cell line HT-29,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 2244–2251, 1996. View at Scopus
  88. M. Silva, N. V. Jacobus, C. Deneke, and S. L. Gorbach, “Antimicrobial substance from a human Lactobacillus strain,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 1231–1233, 1987. View at Scopus
  89. D. Bouglé, N. Roland, F. Lebeurrier, and P. Arhan, “Effect of propionibacteria supplementation on fecal bifidobacteria and segmental colonic transit time in healthy human subjects,” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 144–148, 1999. View at Scopus
  90. S. Spanhaak, R. Havenaar, and G. Schaafsma, “The effect of consumption of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on the intestinal microflora and immune parameters in humans,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 899–907, 1998. View at Scopus
  91. M. F. Bernet, D. Brassart, J. R. Neeser, and A. L. Servin, “Lactobacillus acidophilus LA 1 binds to cultured human intestinal cell lines and inhibits cell attachment and cell invasion by enterovirulent bacteria,” Gut, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 483–489, 1994. View at Scopus
  92. M.-L. Johansson, G. Molin, B. Jeppsson, S. Nobaek, S. Ahrne, and S. Bengmark, “Administration of different Lactobacillus strains in fermented oatmeal soup: in vivo colonization of human intestinal mucosa and effect on the indigenous flora,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 15–20, 1993. View at Scopus
  93. C. N. Jacobsen, V. R. Nielsen, A. E. Hayford et al., “Screening of probiotic activities of forty-seven strains of Lactobacillus spp. by in vitro techniques and evaluation of the colonization ability of five selected strains in humans,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 65, no. 11, pp. 4949–4956, 1999. View at Scopus
  94. R. G. Montes, T. M. Bayless, J. M. Saavedra, and J. A. Perman, “Effect of milks inoculated with Lactobacillus acidophilus or a yogurt starter culture in lactose-maldigesting children,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 78, no. 8, pp. 1657–1664, 1995. View at Scopus
  95. D. O. Noh and S. E. Gilliland, “Influence of bile on cellular integrity and beta-galactosidase activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 1253–1259, 1993. View at Scopus
  96. M. Y. Lin, D. Savaiano, and S. Harlander, “Influence of nonfermented dairy products containing bacterial starter cultures on lactose maldigestion in humans,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 87–95, 1991. View at Scopus
  97. T. Jiang and D. A. Savaiano, “In vitro lactose fermentation by human colonic bacteria is modified by Lactobacillus acidophilus supplementation,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 127, no. 8, pp. 1489–1495, 1997. View at Scopus
  98. H. S. Kim and S. E. Gilliland, “Lactobacillus acidophilus as a dietary adjunct for milk to aid lactose digestion in humans,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 959–966, 1983. View at Scopus
  99. J. Rasic, I. Klem, D. Jovanovic, and M. Ac, “Antimicrobial effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus against Heelicobacter pylori in vitro,” Archives of Gastroenterohepatology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 158–160, 1995. View at Scopus
  100. P. Michetti, G. Dorta, P. H. Wiesel et al., “Effect of whey-based culture supernatant of Lactobacillus acidophilus (johnsonii) La1 on Helicobacter pylori infection in humans,” Digestion, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 203–209, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. C. P. Felley, I. Corthésy-Theulaz, J.-L. Rivero et al., “Favourable effect of an acidified milk (LC-1) on Helicobacter pylori gastritis in man,” European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 25–29, 1999. View at Scopus
  102. M. Coconnier, V. Lievin, E. Hemery, and A. L. Servin, “Antagonistic activity against Helicobacter infection in vitro and in vivo by the human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 64, no. 11, pp. 4573–4580, 1998. View at Scopus
  103. K. Niedzielin, H. Kordecki, and B. Birkenfeld, “A controlled, double-blind, randomized study on the efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum 299V in patients with irritable bowel syndrome,” European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 1143–1147, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. S. Nobaek, M. Johansson, G. Molin, S. Ahrné, and B. Jeppsson, “Alteration of intestinal microflora is associated with reduction in abdominal bloating and pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 95, no. 5, pp. 1231–1238, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. G. . Bazzocchi, M. Campieri, P. Gionchetti, et al., “Change in colonic function and fecal microbiological and enzymatic activities induced by a new probiotic preparation,” Gastroenterology International, vol. 11, supplement 1, article 111, 1998.
  106. E. Salminen, I. Elomaa, J. Minkkinen, H. Vapaatalo, and S. Salminen, “Preservation of intestinal integrity during radiotherapy using live Lactobacillus acidophilus cultures,” Clinical Radiology, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 435–437, 1988. View at Scopus
  107. P. Delia, G. Sansotta, V. Donato et al., “Prevention of radiation-induced diarrhea with the use of VSL#3, a new high-potency probiotic preparation,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 97, no. 8, pp. 2150–2152, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. P. J. Oksanen, S. Salminen, M. Saxelin et al., “Prevention of travellers' diarrhoea by Lactobacillus GG,” Annals of Medicine, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 53–56, 1990. View at Scopus
  109. A. C. Ouwehand, P. V. Kirjavainen, C. Shortt, and S. Salminen, “Probiotics: mechanisms and established effects,” International Dairy Journal, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 43–52, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. G. W. Elmer, C. M. Surawicz, and L. V. McFarland, “Biotherapeutic agents: a neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 275, no. 11, pp. 870–876, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. M. Malin, H. Suomalainen, M. Saxelin, and E. Isolauri, “Promotion of IgA immune response in patients with Crohn's disease by oral bacteriotherapy with Lactobacillus GG,” Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 137–145, 1996. View at Scopus
  112. P. Gupta, H. Andrew, B. S. Kirschner, and S. Guandalini, “Is Lactobacillus GG helpful in children with Crohn's disease? Results of a preliminary, open-label study,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 453–457, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. M. Guslandi, G. Mezzi, M. Sorghi, and P. A. Testoni, “Saccharomyces boulardii in maintenance treatment of Crohn's disease,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 45, no. 7, pp. 1462–1464, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. K. Plein and J. Hotz, “Therapeutic effects of Saccharomyces boulardii on mild residual symptoms in a stable phase of Crohn's disease with special respect to chronic diarrhea—a pilot study,” Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 129–134, 1993. View at Scopus
  115. A. Venturi, P. Gionchetti, F. Rizzello et al., “Impact on the composition of the faecal flora by a new probiotic preparation: preliminary data on maintenance treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1103–1108, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. W. Kruis, E. Schutz, P. Fric, B. Fixa, G. Judmaier, and M. Stolte, “Double-blind comparison of an oral Escherichia coli prepration and mesalazine in maintaining remission of ulcerative colitis,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 853–858, 1997. View at Scopus
  117. B. J. Rembacken, A. M. Snelling, P. M. Hawkey, D. M. Chalmers, and A. T. R. Axon, “Non-pathogenic Escherichia coli versus mesalazine for the treatment of ulcerative colitis: a randomised trial,” The Lancet, vol. 354, no. 9179, pp. 635–639, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. P. Gionchetti, F. Rizzello, A. Venturi et al., “Oral bacteriotherapy as maintenance treatment in patients with chronic pouchitis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Gastroenterology, vol. 119, no. 2, pp. 584–587, 2000. View at Scopus
  119. R. J. Kennedy, S. J. Kirk, and K. R. Gardiner, “Probiotics in IBD,” Gut, vol. 49, no. 6, p. 873, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. W. H. L. Ling, R. Korpela, H. Mykkanen, S. Salminen, and O. Hanninen, “Lactobacillus strain GG supplementation decreases colonic hydrolytic and reductive enzyme activities in healthy female adults,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 18–23, 1994. View at Scopus
  121. P. Bailey and K. Shahani, “Inhibitory effect of acidophilus cultured colostrum and milk upon the proliferation of ascites tumor,” in Proceedings of the 71st Annual Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, 1979.
  122. G. H. McIntosh, P. J. Royle, and M. J. Playne, “A probiotic strain of L. Acidophilus reduces DMH-induced large intestinal tumors in male sprague-dawley rats,” Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 153–159, 1999. View at Scopus
  123. B. R. Goldin and S. L. Gorbach, “The effect of milk and lactobacillus feeding on human intestinal bacterial enzyme activity,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 756–761, 1984. View at Scopus
  124. I. G. Bogdanov, P. G. Dalev, and A. I. Gurevich, “Antitumour glycopeptides from Lactobacillus bulgaricus cell wall,” FEBS Letters, vol. 57, pp. 3–8, 1975. View at Scopus
  125. G. Reid, A. W. Bruce, and M. Taylor, “Influence of three-day antimicrobial therapy and lactobacillus vaginal suppositories on recurrence or urinary tract infections,” Clinical Therapeutics, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 11–16, 1992. View at Scopus
  126. A. W. Bruce, G. Reid, J. A. McGroarty, M. Taylor, and C. Preston, “Preliminary study on the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection in adult women using intravaginal Lactobacilli,” International Urogynecology Journal, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 22–25, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. G. Reid, A. W. Bruce, N. Fraser, C. Heinemann, J. Owen, and B. Henning, “Oral probiotics can resolve urogenital infections,” FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 49–52, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. G. Reid, “Probiotic therapy and functional foods for the prevention of urinary tract infections: state of the art and science,” Current Infectious Disease Reports, vol. 2, pp. 518–522, 2000.
  129. G. Reid and A. W. Bruce, “Selection of Lactobacillus strains for urogenital probiotic applications,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 183, supplement 1, pp. S77–S80, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. G. Reid, A. W. Bruce, R. L. Cook, and M. Llano, “Effect of urogenital flora of antibiotic therapy for urinary tract infection,” Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 43–47, 1990. View at Scopus
  131. G. Reid, A. W. Bruce, and M. Taylor, “Instillation of Lactobacillus and stimulation of indigenous organisms to prevent recurrence of urinary tract infections,” Microecology and Therapy, vol. 23, pp. 32–45, 1995.
  132. G. Reid, “In vitro testing of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM(TM) as a possible probiotic for the urogenital tract,” International Dairy Journal, vol. 10, no. 5-6, pp. 415–419, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. A. B. Williams, C. Yu, K. Tashima, J. Burgess, and K. Danvers, “Evaluation of two self-care treatments for prevention of vaginal candidiasis in women with HIV,” The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 51–57, 2001. View at Scopus
  134. E. Hilton, H. D. Isenberg, P. Alperstein, K. France, and M. T. Borenstein, “Ingestion of yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus as prophylaxis for candidal vaginitis,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 116, no. 5, pp. 353–357, 1992. View at Scopus
  135. R. D. Wagner, C. Pierson, T. Warner et al., “Biotherapeutic effects of probiotic bacteria on candidiasis in immunodeficient mice,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 65, no. 10, pp. 4165–4172, 1997. View at Scopus
  136. M. Plockova, J. Chumchalova, and J. Tomanova, “Antifungal activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus, CH5 metabolites,” Potravinarske Vedy, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 39–48, 1997.
  137. E. Hilton, P. Rindos, and H. D. Isenberg, “Lactobacillus GG vaginal suppositories and vaginitis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 33, no. 5, p. 1433, 1995. View at Scopus
  138. P. Cadieux, J. Burton, G. Gardiner et al., “Lactobacillus strains and vaginal ecology,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 287, no. 15, pp. 1940–1941, 2002. View at Scopus
  139. R. Sridar, M. Nguyen, and K. Kailasapathy, “Studies on the effect of encapsulation on the survival of probiotic microorganisms under high acid and bile conditions,” Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 458–460, 2003. View at Scopus
  140. K. Kailasapathy and L. Masondole, “Survival of free and microencapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis and their effect on texture of feta cheese,” Australian Journal of Dairy Technology, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 252–258, 2005. View at Scopus
  141. A. Picot and C. Lacroix, “Encapsulation of bifidobacteria in whey protein-based microcapsules and survival in simulated gastrointestinal conditions and in yoghurt,” International Dairy Journal, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 505–515, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. E. S. Chan and Z. Zhang, “Bioencapsulation by compression coating of probiotic bacteria for their protection in an acidic medium,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 40, no. 10, pp. 3346–3351, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. R. C. W. Hou, M. Y. Lin, M. M. C. Wang, and J. T. C. Tzen, “Increase of viability of entrapped cells of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus in artificial sesame oil emulsions,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 424–428, 2003. View at Scopus
  144. W. K. Ding and N. P. Shah, “Effect of various encapsulating materials on the stability of probiotic bacteria,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. M100–M107, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. A. Sohail, M. S. Turner, A. Coombes, T. Bostrom, and B. Bhandari, “Survivability of probiotics encapsulated in alginate gel microbeads using a novel impinging aerosols method,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 145, no. 1, pp. 162–168, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. S. Gouin, “Microencapsulation: industrial appraisal of existing technologies and trends,” Trends in Food Science and Technology, vol. 15, no. 7-8, pp. 330–347, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. Y. Zhou, E. Martins, A. Groboillot, C. P. Champagne, and R. J. Neufeld, “Spectrophotometric quantification of lactic bacteria in alginate and control of cell release with chitosan coating,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 342–348, 1998. View at Scopus
  148. H. Prevost, C. Divies, and E. Rousseau, “Continuous yoghurt production with Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus entrapped in Ca-alginate,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 247–252, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. H. Prevost and C. Divies, “Fresh fermented cheese production with continuous pre-fermented milk by a mixed culture of mesophilic lactic streptococci entrapped in Ca-Al ginate,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 789–794, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. L. R. Steenson, T. R. Klaenhammer, and H. E. Swaisgood, “Calcium alginate-immobilized cultures of lactic Streptococci are protected from bacteriophages,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 1121–1127, 1987. View at Scopus
  151. L. Kearney, M. Upton, and A. McLoughlin, “Enhancing the viability of Lactobacillus plantarum inoculum by immobilizing the cells in calcium-alginate beads incorporating cryoprotectants,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 3112–3116, 1990. View at Scopus
  152. H. Prevost and C. Divies, “Cream fermentation by a mixed culture of Lactococci entrapped in two-layer calcium alginate gel beads,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 583–588, 1992. View at Scopus
  153. N. Morin, M. Bernier-Cardou, and C. P. Champagne, “Production of Lactococcus lactis biomass by immobilized cell technology,” Journal of Industrial Microbiology, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 131–135, 1992. View at Scopus
  154. C. P. Champagne, F. Girard, and N. Rodrigue, “Production of concentrated suspensions of thermophilic lactic acid bacteria in calcium-alginate beads,” International Dairy Journal, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 257–275, 1993. View at Scopus
  155. R. Cachon and C. Divies, “Localization of Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis bv diacetylactis in alginate gel beads affects biomass density and synthesis of several enzymes involved in lactose and citrate metabolism,” Biotechnology Techniques, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 453–456, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. T. Jankowski, M. Zielinska, and A. Wysakowska, “Encapsulation of lactic acid bacteria with alginate/starch capsules,” Biotechnology Techniques, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 31–34, 1997. View at Scopus
  157. L. D. McMaster, S. A. Kokott, and P. Slatter, “Micro-encapsulation of Bifidobacterium lactis for incorporation into soft foods,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 723–728, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. L. D. McMaster, S. A. Kokott, S. J. Reid, and V. R. Abratt, “Use of traditional African fermented beverages as delivery vehicles for Bifidobacterium lactis DSM 10140,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 231–237, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. C. P. Champagne, C. Gaudy, D. Poncelet, and R. J. Neufeld, “Lactococcus lactis release from calcium alginate beads,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 1429–1434, 1992. View at Scopus
  160. C. Martoni, J. Bhathena, A. M. Urbanska, and S. Prakash, “Microencapsulated bile salt hydrolase producing Lactobacillus reuteri for oral targeted delivery in the gastrointestinal tract,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 225–233, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. V. Chandramouli, K. Kailasapathy, P. Peiris, and M. Jones, “An improved method of microencapsulation and its evaluation to protect Lactobacillus spp. in simulated gastric conditions,” Journal of Microbiological Methods, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 27–35, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. S. Graff, J. Chaumeil, P. Boy, R. Lai-Kuen, and C. Charrueau, “Formulations for protecting the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii from degradation in acidic condition,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 266–272, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. M. Chen, K. Chen, and Y. Kuo, “Optimal thermotolerance of Bifidobacterium bifidum in gellan-alginate microparticles,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 411–419, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. K. Chen, M. Chen, and C. Lin, “Optimal combination of the encapsulating materials for probiotic microcapsules and its experimental verification (R1),” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 313–320, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. K. Lee and T. Heo, “Survival of Bifidobacterium longum immobilized in calcium alginate beads in simulated gastric juices and bile salt solution,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 869–873, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. P. Muthukumarasamy and R. A. Holley, “Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dry fermented sausages containing micro-encapsulated probiotic lactic acid bacteria,” Food Microbiology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 82–88, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  167. P. Muthukumarasamy and R. A. Holley, “Microbiological and sensory quality of dry fermented sausages containing alginate-microencapsulated Lactobacillus reuteri,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 164–169, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. K. Kailasapathy, “Survival of free and encapsulated probiotic bacteria and their effect on the sensory properties of yoghurt,” Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1221–1227, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  169. P. Dinakar and V. V. Mistry, “Growth and viability of Bifidobacterium bifidum in cheddar cheese,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 77, no. 10, pp. 2854–2864, 1994. View at Scopus
  170. P. Audet, C. Paquin, and C. Lacroix, “Immobilized growing lactic acid bacteria with κ-carrageenan—locust bean gum gel,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 11–18, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  171. A. V. Rao, N. Shiwnarain, and I. Maharaj, “Survival of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium pseudolongum in simulated gastric and intestinal juices,” Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 345–349, 1989.
  172. T. Y. Sheu and R. T. Marshall, “Improving culture viability in frozen dairy desserts by microencapsulation,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 74, supplement 1, article 107, 1991.
  173. J.-P. Arnaud, C. Lacroix, and L. Choplin, “Effect of agitation rate on cell release rate and metabolism during continuous fermentation with entrapped growing—Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei,” Biotechnology Techniques, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 265–270, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  174. A. F. Groboillot, C. P. Champagne, G. D. Darling, D. Poncelet, and R. J. Neufeld, “Membrane formation by interfacial cross-linking of chitosan for microencapsulation of Lactococcus lactis,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 1157–1163, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  175. T. Y. Sheu, R. T. Marshall, and H. Heymann, “Improving survival of culture bacteria in frozen desserts by microentrapment,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 76, no. 7, pp. 1902–1907, 1993. View at Scopus
  176. C. L. Hyndman, A. F. Groboillot, D. Poncelet, C. P. Champagne, and R. J. Neufeld, “Microencapsulation of Lactococcus lactis within cross-linked gelatin membranes,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 259–263, 1993. View at Scopus
  177. B. C. Larisch, D. Poncelet, C. P. Champagne, and R. J. Neufeld, “Microencapsulation of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris,” Journal of Microencapsulation, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 189–195, 1994. View at Scopus
  178. S. Mandal, A. K. Puniya, and K. Singh, “Effect of alginate concentrations on survival of microencapsulated Lactobacillus casei NCDC-298,” International Dairy Journal, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 1190–1195, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  179. J. S. Lee, D. S. Cha, and H. J. Park, “Survival of freeze-dried Lactobacillus bulgaricus KFRI 673 in chitosan-coated calcium alginate microparticles,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 24, pp. 7300–7305, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  180. A. Homayouni, A. Azizi, M. R. Ehsani, M. S. Yarmand, and S. H. Razavi, “Effect of microencapsulation and resistant starch on the probiotic survival and sensory properties of synbiotic ice cream,” Food Chemistry, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 50–55, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  181. K. Sultana, G. Godward, N. Reynolds, R. Arumugaswamy, P. Peiris, and K. Kailasapathy, “Encapsulation of probiotic bacteria with alginate-starch and evaluation of survival in simulated gastrointestinal conditions and in yoghurt,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 62, no. 1-2, pp. 47–55, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  182. N. T. Annan, A. D. Borza, and L. T. Hansen, “Encapsulation in alginate-coated gelatin microspheres improves survival of the probiotic Bifidobacterium adolescentis 15703T during exposure to simulated gastro-intestinal conditions,” Food Research International, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 184–193, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  183. W. Lian, H. Hsiao, and C. Chou, “Survival of bifidobacteria after spray-drying,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 74, no. 1-2, pp. 79–86, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  184. W. Lian, H. Hsiao, and C. Chou, “Viability of microencapsulated bifidobacteria in simulated gastric juice and bile solution,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 293–301, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  185. H. Hsiao, W. Lian, and C. Chou, “Effect of packaging conditions and temperature on viability of microencapsulated bifidobacteria during storage,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 134–139, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  186. G. E. Gardiner, P. Bouchier, E. O'Sullivan et al., “A spray-dried culture for probiotic Cheddar cheese manufacture,” International Dairy Journal, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 749–756, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  187. E. Ananta, M. Volkert, and D. Knorr, “Cellular injuries and storage stability of spray-dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG,” International Dairy Journal, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 399–409, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  188. A. Picot and C. Lacroix, “Effects of micronization on viability and thermotolerance of probiotic freeze-dried cultures,” International Dairy Journal, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 455–462, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  189. K. O'Riordan, D. Andrews, K. Buckle, and P. Conway, “Evaluation of microencapsulation of a Bifidobacterium strain with starch as an approach to prolonging viability during storage,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 1059–1066, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  190. L. Su, C. Lin, and M. Chen, “Development of an Oriental-style dairy product coagulated by microcapsules containing probiotics and filtrates from fermented rice,” International Journal of Dairy Technology, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 49–54, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  191. C. S. Fávaro-Trindade and C. R. F. Grosso, “Microencapsulation of L. acidophilus (La-05) and B. lactis (Bb-12) and evaluation of their survival at the pH values of the stomach and in bile,” Journal of Microencapsulation, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 485–494, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  192. C. Desmond, R. P. Ross, E. O'Callaghan, G. Fitzgerald, and C. Stanton, “Improved survival of Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 in spray-dried powders containing gum acacia,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 93, no. 6, pp. 1003–1011, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  193. A. Madene, M. Jacquot, J. Scher, and S. Desobry, “Flavour encapsulation and controlled release—a review,” International Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 1–21, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  194. K. Kailasapathy, “Microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria: technology and potential applications,” Current Issues in Intestinal Microbiology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 39–48, 2002. View at Scopus
  195. C. Santivarangkna, U. Kulozik, and P. Foerst, “Alternative drying processes for the industrial preservation of lactic acid starter cultures,” Biotechnology Progress, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 302–315, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  196. E. Roelans and D. Taeymans, “Effect of drying condition on survival and enzyme activity of microorganisms,” in Engineering and Food Volume 3, W. E. L. Spiess and H. Schubert, Eds., Advanced Process, pp. 559–569, Elsevier Applied Science, London, UK, 1990.
  197. L. J. M. Linders, W. F. Wolkers, F. A. Hoekstra, and K. van't Riet, “Effect of added carbohydrate on membrane phase behaviour and survival of dried Lactobacillus plantarum,” Cryobiology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 31–40, 1997. View at Scopus
  198. E. Selmer-Olsen, T. Sørhaug, S.-E. Birkeland, and R. Pohrson, “Survival of Lactobacillus helveticus entrapped in Ca-alginate in relation to water content, storage and rehydration,” Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 79–85, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  199. Y. Mille, J. Obert, L. Beney, and P. Gervais, “New drying process for lactic bacteria based on their dehydration behavior in liquid medium,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 71–76, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  200. D. Semyonov, O. Ramon, Z. Kaplun, L. Levin-Brener, N. Gurevich, and E. Shimoni, “Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus paracasei by spray freeze drying,” Food Research International, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 193–202, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  201. A. Martinsen, G. Skjak-Braek, and O. Smidsrod, “Alginate as immobilization material: i. Correlation between chemical and physical properties of alginate gel beads,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 79–89, 1989. View at Scopus
  202. J. Klein, J. Stock, and K.-D. Vorlop, “Pore size and properties of spherical Ca-alginate biocatalysts,” European Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 86–91, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  203. H. Eikmeier and H. J. Rehm, “Stability of calcium-alginate during citric acid production of immobilized Aspergillus niger,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 105–111, 1987. View at Scopus
  204. J. C. Ellenton, Encapsulation bifidobacteria [M.S. thesis], University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada, 1998.
  205. M. T. Cook, G. Tzortzis, D. Charalampopoulos, and V. V. Khutoryanskiy, “Microencapsulation of probiotics for gastrointestinal delivery,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 162, pp. 56–57, 2012.
  206. C. P. Champagene and P. Fustier, “Microencapsulation for delivery of probiotics and other ingredients in functional dairy products,” Functional Dairy Products, vol. 2, pp. 404–426, 2007.
  207. G. K. Gbassi and T. Vandamme, “Probiotic encapsulation technology: from microencapsulation to release into the gut,” Pharmaceutics, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 149–163, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  208. A. H. King, “Encapsulation of food ingredients: a review of available technology, focussing on hydrocolloid,” in Encapsulation and Controlled Release of Food Ingredients, J. R. Sara and A. R. Gary, Eds., vol. 590 of ACS Symposium Series, pp. 26–39, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA.
  209. K. Kailasapathy, “Encapsulation technologies for functional foods and nutraceutical product development,” CAB Reviews, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 1–19, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  210. P. de Vos, M. M. Faas, M. Spasojevic, and J. Sikkema, “Encapsulation for preservation of functionality and targeted delivery of bioactive food components,” International Dairy Journal, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 292–302, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  211. O. Smidsrod and G. Skjak-Braek, “Alginate as immobilization matrix for cells,” Trends in Biotechnology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 71–75, 1990. View at Scopus
  212. S. Overgaard, J. M. Scharer, M. Moo-Young, and N. C. Bols, “Immobilization of hybridoma cells in chitosan alginate beads,” Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 439–443, 1991. View at Scopus
  213. C. Lacroix, C. Paquin, and J.-P. Arnaud, “Batch fermentation with entrapped growing cells of Lactobacillus casei. Optimization of the rheological properties of the entrapment gel matrix,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 403–408, 1990. View at Scopus
  214. A. W. Adamson, Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 1982.
  215. T. Heidebach, P. Först, and U. Kulozik, “Microencapsulation of probiotic cells by means of rennet-gelation of milk proteins,” Food Hydrocolloids, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 1670–1677, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  216. T. Heidebach, P. Först, and U. Kulozik, “Transglutaminase-induced caseinate gelation for the microencapsulation of probiotic cells,” International Dairy Journal, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 77–84, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  217. Y. D. Livney, “Milk proteins as vehicles for bioactives,” Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 15, no. 1-2, pp. 73–83, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  218. J. Yáñez-Fernández, E. G. Ramos-Ramírez, and J. A. Salazar-Montoya, “Rheological characterization of dispersions and emulsions used in the preparation of microcapsules obtained by interfacial polymerization containing Lactobacillus sp,” European Food Research and Technology, vol. 226, no. 5, pp. 957–966, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  219. A. Dimantov, M. Greenberg, E. Kesselman, and E. Shimoni, “Study of high amylose corn starch as food grade enteric coating in a microcapsule model system,” Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 93–100, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  220. M. J. Pikal, “Freeze-drying of protein, part-I: process design,” PharmTech International, vol. 1, pp. 37–43, 1991.
  221. A. R. Donthidi, R. F. Tester, and K. E. Aidoo, “Effect of lecithin and starch on alginate-encapsulated probiotic bacteria,” Journal of Microencapsulation, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 67–77, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  222. N. Huyghebaert, A. Vermeire, P. Rottiers, E. Remaut, and J. P. Remon, “Development of an enteric-coated, layered multi-particulate formulation for ileal delivery of viable recombinant Lactococcus lactis,” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 134–141, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  223. H. Hayashi, E. Kumazawa, Y. Saeki, and Y. Ishioka, “Continuous vaccum dryer for energy saving,” Drying Technology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 275–284, 1983. View at Scopus
  224. Z. L. Wang, W. H. Finlay, M. S. Peppler, and L. G. Sweeney, “Powder formation by atmospheric spray-freeze-drying,” Powder Technology, vol. 170, no. 1, pp. 45–52, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  225. H. Durand and J. Panes, “Particles containing coated living micro-organisms, and method for producing same,” US patent and Trademark Office, N20030109025.
  226. V. Truong, D. A. Clare, G. L. Catignani, and H. E. Swaisgood, “Cross-linking and rheological changes of whey protein treated with microbial transglutaminase,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 1170–1176, 2004. View at Scopus
  227. B. R. Bhandari, N. Datta, B. R. D'Arcy, and G. B. Rintoul, “Co-crystallization of honey with sucrose,” Food Science and Technology, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 138–142, 1998. View at Scopus
  228. A. Hedges and C. McBride, “Utilization of β-cyclodextrin in food,” Cereal Foods World, vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 700–704, 1999. View at Scopus
  229. F. T. Gentile, E. J. Doherty, D. H. Rein, M. S. Shoichet, and S. R. Winn, “Polymer science for macroencapsulation of cells for central nervous system transplantation,” Reactive Polymers, vol. 25, no. 2-3, pp. 207–227, 1995. View at Scopus
  230. Z. Dong, Q. Wang, and Y. Du, “Alginate/gelatin blend films and their properties for drug controlled release,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 280, no. 1-2, pp. 37–44, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  231. K. I. Draget, K. Steinsvåg, E. Onsøyen, and O. Smidsrød, “Na+ and K+alginate; effect on Ca2+-gelation,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 35, no. 1-2, pp. 1–6, 1998. View at Scopus
  232. T. Harnsilawat, R. Pongsawatmanit, and D. J. McClements, “Characterization of β-lactoglobulin-sodium alginate interactions in aqueous solutions: a calorimetry, light scattering, electrophoretic mobility and solubility study,” Food Hydrocolloids, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 577–585, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  233. L. T. Hansen, P. M. Allan-Wojtas, Y.-L. Jin, and A. T. Paulson, “Survival of Ca-alginate microencapsulated Bifidobacterium spp. in milk and simulated gastrointestinal conditions,” Food Microbiology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 35–45, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  234. G. F. Fanta, C. A. Knutson, K. S. Eskins, and F. C. Felker, “Starch microcapsules for delivery of active agents,” US patent. 2001, 6, 238, 677.
  235. S. G. Haralampu, “Resistant starch—a review of the physical properties and biological impact of RS3,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 285–292, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  236. C. J. Malm, J. Emerson, and G. D. Hiatt, “Cellulose acetate phthalate as an enteric coating material,” Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, vol. 40, no. 10, pp. 520–525, 1951. View at Scopus
  237. S. Gaaloul, S. L. Turgeon, and M. Corredig, “Influence of shearing on the physical characteristics and rheological behaviour of an aqueous whey protein isolate-κappa-carrageenan mixture,” Food Hydrocolloids, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 1243–1252, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  238. Y. Yuguchi, T. T. T. Thuy, H. Urakawa, and K. Kajiwara, “Structural characteristics of carrageenan gels: temperature and concentration dependence,” Food Hydrocolloids, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 515–522, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  239. M. R. Mangione, D. Giacomazza, D. Bulone, V. Martorana, and P. L. san Biagio, “Thermoreversible gelation of κ-Carrageenan: relation between conformational transition and aggregation,” Biophysical Chemistry, vol. 104, no. 1, pp. 95–105, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  240. H. P. Sarett, “Safety of carrageenan used in foods,” The Lancet, vol. 1, no. 8212, pp. 151–152, 1981. View at Scopus
  241. Y. Doleyres, I. Fliss, and C. Lacroix, “Continuous production of mixed lactic starters containing probiotic using immobilised cell technology,” Biotechnology Progress, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 145–150, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  242. J. Klien and D. K. Vorlop, “Immobilisation technique cells,” in Comprehensive Biotechnology, M. Moo-Yong, C. L. Cooney, and A. E. Humphery, Eds., pp. 542–550, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, 1985.
  243. S. Rokka and P. Rantamäki, “Protecting probiotic bacteria by microencapsulation: challenges for industrial applications,” European Food Research and Technology, vol. 231, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  244. A. A. Reid, C. P. Champagne, N. Gardner, P. Fustier, and J. C. Vuillemard, “Survival in food systems of Lactobacillus rhamnosus R011 microentrapped in whey protein gel particles,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. M31–M37, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus